Challenges and Solutions for Biogas Production from Agriculture Waste in the Aral Sea Basin
2. Literature Review
2.1. Biogas Practices in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
2.2. Agriculture and Energy Conditions in Aral Sea Region of Uzbekistan
2.3. The Most Important Local Needs
3. Field Evaluation
4. Field Trip Results
- Most of the farms are located in remote areas with limited coverage of public utilities such as electricity grid, natural gas supply systems or tap water. Official statistics claim that 20 percent do not have access to the natural gas grid, and more than 10 percent are not connected to the electricity grid . As most farmers are located in rural areas, it is hard for them to access sustainable electricity and natural gas from the central grid. Moreover, the central grid is unreliable, especially during the irrigation periods due to the overload demand.
- Most people in the remote areas are farmers and herders who need access to sustainable supply of electricity and natural gas for various purposes . They need heat for cooking and space heating, which is crucial for their well-being, especially during the cold seasons. Importantly, the Aral Sea basin has extreme continental weather conditions which are dry hot in summer and dry cold in winter . Farmers demand electricity for space lighting for use of basic electric equipment in remote places with no natural gas supply infrastructure. Electricity is also used for cooking and heating purposes. But, electricity is the main source of water pumps in the farms. In total, 80% of all arid lands are irrigated through water lifting techniques . Out of this share, more than half of the irrigation is done using electric power . Gravity irrigation is used for around 20% of the arid lands, while around 20% of the irrigation is done using resources such as oil, natural gas and animal power .
4.1. Agrofirma, Khorezm Territorial Electricity Networks JSC, Gurlen District (with Biogas Plant)
- Temperature within the tank is not kept stable (no thermometer inside the tank).
- If the information was correct, the digester is stirred by injection of air, which is poison for anaerobic digestion.
- The retention time—if amounts were correct—is only 15 days, what is at least half of the time recommended.
- Input and output pipes are next to each other, which causes an export of undigested manure (and an accordingly longer retention time of material in the back of the digester).
4.2. Muslima Sotimova, Yangibozor District (without Biogas Plant)
4.3. Yuldosh Majid, Khiva District (with Biogas Plant)
4.4. Biougit, LLC, Urench District (with Biogas Plant)
4.5. Ibrohim Bobomurot, Bogot District (without Biogas Plant)
5. Findings: from Challenges to Solutions
- Organic wastes will not be gathered in waste houses and methane emissions will be avoided.
- The biogas plants will deliver the following products: biogas for heating the agro-unit; digested manure withdrawn to feed the farmland towards increasing food production rate; delivery and sale of energy produced by biogas to the agro unit, other business units and households.
- Increasing employment opportunities towards social and economic conditions of local people; increasing food supply in a sustainable, environmentally friendly way and decreasing the price of food.
- The land supplied with digested manure will require less water. Water consumption in farmland will decrease the dependence to the most valuable natural resource.
6. Discussion and Conclusions
- The knowledge about biogas technology in Uzbekistan seems in the initial stage. The installations visited so far show severe technical deficiencies and there seems to be lacking know-how on plant operating. Capacity building in renewable energy will lead to the greening energy sector as well as mitigating negative consequences of climate change in the Aral Sea basin.
- Like in most newly industrializing countries, in Uzbekistan biogas production concentrates on animal manure. However, excrements are not optimal for anaerobic digestion, because they have already passed through the intestine of an animal. Undigested organic matter, such as harvesting or organic household wastes, show a significant higher biogas potential than animal manure. However, the installations visited concentrate on animal manure alone without supplementing undigested so-called “co-substrates.”
- There are large farms with a high potential for producing biogas. They can produce a lot more energy than just covering their own needs. Unfortunately, these big farms are normally far from villages and houses, which could use the surplus heat for heating their buildings.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Patinvoh, R.J.; Taherzadeh, M.J. Challenges of biogas implementation in developing countries. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sci. Health 2019, 12, 30–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Bank. Solid Waste Management: Understanding Poverty. 2019. Available online: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/urbandevelopment/brief/solid-wastemanagement (accessed on 28 December 2020).
- International Energy Agency, Energy and Climate Change. World Energy Outlook Special Report; IEA/OECD: Paris, France, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Aquastat. The Aral Sea Basin Transboundary River Basin. 2011. Available online: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/fussr/index5.stm (accessed on 1 January 2021).
- Achinas, S.; Euverink, G.J.W. Theoretical analysis of biogas potential prediction from agricultural waste. Resour. Technol. 2016, 2, 143–147. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Sokolov, V. Future of irrigation in Central Asia. In What Are the Prospects for the Future. In Proceedings of the IWMI-FAO Workshop on Trends and Transitions in Asian Irrigation, Bangkok, Thailand, 19–21 January 2009. [Google Scholar]
- World Bank. Irrigation in Central Asia: Social, Economic and Environmental Considerations; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Muradin, M.; Foltynowicz, Z. Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland. Sustainability 2014, 6, 5065–5074. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- United Nations Environment Programme. The Emissions Gap Report; A UNEP Synthesis Report; UNEP: Nairobi, Kenya, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Saidmamatov, O.; Rudenko, I.; Pfister, S.; Koziel, J.A. Water–Energy–Food Nexus Framework for Promoting Regional Integration in Central Asia. Water 2020, 12, 1896. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNDP. Human Development Report; United Nations: New York, NY, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dukhovny, V.; Sokolov, V. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin; UNESCO-IHP: Paris, France, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Azouma, Y.O.; Jegla, Z.; Reppich, M.; Turek, V.; Weiss, M. Using agricultural waste for biogas production as a sustainable energy supply for developing countries. Chem. Eng. Trans. 2018, 70, 445–450. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saidmamatov, O.; Matyakubov, U.; Rudenko, I.; Filimonau, V.; Day, J.; Luthe, T. Employing Ecotourism Opportunities for Sustainability in the Aral Sea Region: Prospects and Challenges. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gao, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Feng, Y. Opportunities and Challenges for Biogas Development: A Review in 2013–2018. Curr. Pollut. Rep. 2019, 5, 25–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morgan, H.M.; Xie, W.; Liang, J.; Mao, H.; Lei, H.; Ruan, R.; Bu, Q. A techno-economic evaluation of anaerobic biogas producing systems in developing countries. Bioresour. Technol. 2018, 250, 910–921. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Deng, L.; Liu, Y.; Zheng, D.; Wang, L.; Pu, X.; Song, L.; Wang, Z.; Lei, Y.; Chen, Z.; Long, Y. Application and development of biogas technology for the treatment of waste in China. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 70, 845–851. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- He, K.; Zhang, J.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, L. Households’ willingness to accept compensation for agricultural waste recycling: Taking biogas production from livestock manure waste in Hubei, P. R. China as an example. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 131, 410–420. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gao, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Feng, Y. Biogas potential, utilization and countermeasures in agricultural provinces: A case study of biogas development in Henan Province, China. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2019, 99, 191–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mittal, S.; Ahlgren, E.O.; Shukla, P. Barriers to biogas dissemination in India: A review. Energy Policy 2018, 112, 361–370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Khan, E.U.; Martin, A.R. Review of biogas digester technology in rural Bangladesh. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 62, 247–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gautam, R.; Baral, S.; Herat, S. Biogas as a sustainable energy source in Nepal: Present status and future challenges. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2009, 13, 248–252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Karellas, S.; Boukis, I.; Kontopoulos, G. Development of an investment decision tool for biogas production from agricultural waste. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2010, 14, 1273–1282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rupf, G.V.; Bahri, P.A.; De Boer, K.; McHenry, M.P. Barriers and opportunities of biogas dissemination in Sub-Saharan Africa and lessons learned from Rwanda, Tanzania, China, India, and Nepal. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 52, 468–476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Sovacool, B.K.; Kryman, M.; Smith, T. Scaling and commercializing mobile biogas systems in Kenya: A qualitative pilot study. Renew. Energy 2015, 76, 115–125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Onthong, U.; Juntarachat, N. Evaluation of Biogas Production Potential from Raw and Processed Agricultural Wastes. Energy Procedia 2017, 138, 205–210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hamid, R.; Blanchard, R. An assessment of biogas as a domestic energy source in rural Kenya: Developing a sustainable business model. Renew. Energy 2018, 121, 368–376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Libert, B.; Orolbaev, E.; Steklov, Y. Water and energy crisis in Central Asia. China Eurasia Forum 2008, 6, 9–20. [Google Scholar]
- Rudenko, I.; Lamers, J. The Aral Sea: An Ecological Disaster. CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP). 2010. Available online: https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/55717 (accessed on 2 December 2020).
- ADB. Livestock Value Chain Development Project for Uzbekistan. 2016. Available online: https://www.adb.org/projects/52110-001/main#project-stories (accessed on 25 November 2020).
- UzDaily. UN General Assembly Adopts a Special Resolution “Sustainable Tourism and Sustainable Development in Central Asia”. 2019. Available online: https://uzdaily.uz/en/post/53803 (accessed on 1 January 2021).
- Saidmamatov, O.; Salaev, S.; Eshchanov, B.R. Challenges and Optimization Strategy for Feed-In Tariffs of Renewable Energy in CIS Countries. Balt. J. Real Estate Econ. Constr. Manag. 2015, 3, 6–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Granit, J.; Jägerskog, A.; Lindström, A.; Björklund, G.; Bullock, A.; Löfgren, R.; De Gooijer, G.; Pettigrew, S. Regional Options for Addressing the Water, Energy and Food Nexus in Central Asia and the Aral Sea Basin. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 2012, 28, 419–432. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Piwowar, A.; Dzikuć, M.; Adamczyk, J. Agricultural biogas plants in Poland—Selected technological, market and environmental aspects. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 58, 69–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Micklin, P. The Aral Sea Disaster. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2007, 35, 47–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Surendra, K.; Takara, D.; Hashimoto, A.G.; Khanal, S.K. Biogas as a sustainable energy source for developing countries: Opportunities and challenges. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2014, 31, 846–859. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fumagalli, M. Food security in Central Asia: A priority for Western engagement. Cent. Asia Cauc. Anal. 2008, 10, 12–14. [Google Scholar]
- Jalilov, S.M.; Amer, S.A.; Ward, F.A. Water, Food, and Energy Security: An Elusive Search for Balance in Central Asia. Water Resour. Manag. 2013, 27, 3959–3979. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNDP. Supporting Uzbekistan in Transition to a Low-Emission Development Path. 2016. Available online: https://www.uz.undp.org/content/uzbekistan/en/home.html (accessed on 1 January 2021).
- Lex.uz. Decree of the President of Uzbekistan on Measures to Ensure the Rational Use of Energy Resources. 2017. Available online: https://www.lex.uz/docs/-3405580 (accessed on 26 November 2020).
- Stat.uz. Annual Statistics of Agriculture, Energy, Water Sectors. 2018. Available online: https://stat.uz/uz/rasmiy-statistika/release-calendar-2 (accessed on 1 January 2021).
- REPIC. Biogas from Agricultural Waste in the Aral Sea Basin. 2019. Available online: http://www.repic.ch/repic-en/projects/completed-projects/biomass/ebp-uzbekistan/ (accessed on 1 January 2021).
- REPIC. The arbi Plug-Flow Digester in Tanzania: A medium-size Biogas Plant for Developing Countries. 2015. Available online: http://www.repic.ch/files/6514/3645/5889/SB_Arbi_Tansania_vf_klein.pdf (accessed on 1 January 2021).
- Pachauri, S.; Van Ruijven, B.; Nagai, Y.; Riahi, K.; Van Vuuren, D.P.; Brew-Hammond, A.; Nakicenovic, N. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030. Environ. Res. Lett. 2013, 8, 024015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
|N||Name of the Entity||Quantity (Head)||Manure (ton/Day)||Expected Fermenter Volume (m3)||Biogas Production Potential (×1000 m3/Year)||Total Digestate (tons/Year)||Greenhouse Gas GHG Reduction (tons CO2 eq/Year)|
|2||“Muslimova Sotima” farmer||74||100||25||1||0.02||0.015||22||23.62||287||51|
|3||“Yuldosh Majid” farmer||140||133||2||0.08||43||49.25||610||113|
|5||“Ibrohim Bobomurod” farmer||96||200||50||1||0.03||0.03||30||27.66||312||59|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Saidmamatov, O.; Rudenko, I.; Baier, U.; Khodjaniyazov, E. Challenges and Solutions for Biogas Production from Agriculture Waste in the Aral Sea Basin. Processes 2021, 9, 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020199
Saidmamatov O, Rudenko I, Baier U, Khodjaniyazov E. Challenges and Solutions for Biogas Production from Agriculture Waste in the Aral Sea Basin. Processes. 2021; 9(2):199. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020199Chicago/Turabian Style
Saidmamatov, Olimjon, Inna Rudenko, Urs Baier, and Elbek Khodjaniyazov. 2021. "Challenges and Solutions for Biogas Production from Agriculture Waste in the Aral Sea Basin" Processes 9, no. 2: 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020199