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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Curation and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for Predicting Production of Sensory Impact Molecules under Enological Conditions

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Food Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091195
Received: 1 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Yeast in Wine Fermentation Processes)
One approach for elucidating strain-to-strain metabolic differences is the use of genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs). To date GSMMs have not focused on the industrially important area of flavor production and, as such; do not cover all the pathways relevant to flavor formation in yeast. Moreover, current models for Saccharomyces cerevisiae generally focus on carbon-limited and/or aerobic systems, which is not pertinent to enological conditions. Here, we curate a GSMM (iWS902) to expand on the existing Ehrlich pathway and ester formation pathways central to aroma formation in industrial winemaking, in addition to the existing sulfur metabolism and medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) pathways that also contribute to production of sensory impact molecules. After validating the model using experimental data, we predict key differences in metabolism for a strain (EC 1118) in two distinct growth conditions, including differences for aroma impact molecules such as acetic acid, tryptophol, and hydrogen sulfide. Additionally, we propose novel targets for metabolic engineering for aroma profile modifications employing flux variability analysis with the expanded GSMM. The model provides mechanistic insights into the key metabolic pathways underlying aroma formation during alcoholic fermentation and provides a potential framework to contribute to new strategies to optimize the aroma of wines. View Full-Text
Keywords: aroma; flux balance analysis (FBA); genome-scale metabolic models; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; wine fermentation aroma; flux balance analysis (FBA); genome-scale metabolic models; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; wine fermentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, W.T., Jr.; Smid, E.J.; Notebaart, R.A.; Block, D.E. Curation and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for Predicting Production of Sensory Impact Molecules under Enological Conditions. Processes 2020, 8, 1195. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091195

AMA Style

Scott WT Jr., Smid EJ, Notebaart RA, Block DE. Curation and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for Predicting Production of Sensory Impact Molecules under Enological Conditions. Processes. 2020; 8(9):1195. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scott, William T., Jr.; Smid, Eddy J.; Notebaart, Richard A.; Block, David E. 2020. "Curation and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for Predicting Production of Sensory Impact Molecules under Enological Conditions" Processes 8, no. 9: 1195. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091195

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