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Open AccessArticle

Hydrothermal–Microwave Processing for Starch Extraction from Mexican Avocado Seeds: Operational Conditions and Characterization

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Bioprocesses & Bioproducts Research Group, Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, 25280 Saltillo, Mexico
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Biorefinery Group, Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, 25280 Saltillo, Mexico
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Nanobioscience Group, Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, 25280 Saltillo, Mexico
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Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Technological Institute of Mexico/I.T. Durango, Felipe Pescador 1830, Nueva Vizcaya, 34080 Durango, Mexico
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Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, CINVESTAV-Saltillo, Avenida Industria Metalurgia 1062, Parque Industrial Saltillo-Ramos Arizpe, 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
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Center for Biotechnology and Fine Chemistry, School of Biotechnology, Portuguese Catholic University, 4202-401 Porto, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(7), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070759
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
Avocado seeds are an agroindustrial residue widely produced in Mexico that are causing various environmental problems due to their accumulation. The evaluation of avocado residues to recover biopolymers by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and the characterization of avocado starch properties were studied in the present work. A central-composite design was used to optimize the MAE process. Moreover, a comparison was performed between MAE non-isothermal mode (NO–ISO) and conventional extraction. Starch optimization by MAE was obtained at 161.09 °C for 56.23 min with an extraction yield of 49.52% ± 0.69%, while with NO–ISO at 161 °C was obtained 45.75% ± 2.18%. Conventional extraction was 39.04% ± 2.22%. Compared with conventional starch, MAE starch showed similar proprieties and molecular spectra. In contrast, MAE starch showed high solubility, low water absorption capacity, a non-granular structure with small particle size (<2 µm) and polydispersity of fragments at different sizes of polymers. Therefore, MAE is a viable technology to extract the starch, and avocado seed can be considered an excellent starch source for the development of novel functional foods, contributing to promoting sustainability across the food chain. View Full-Text
Keywords: avocado seeds; microwave-assisted extraction; starch source avocado seeds; microwave-assisted extraction; starch source
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Araújo, R.G.; Rodríguez-Jasso, R.M.; Ruiz, H.A.; Govea-Salas, M.; Rosas-Flores, W.; Aguilar-González, M.A.; Pintado, M.E.; Lopez-Badillo, C.; Luevanos, C.; Aguilar, C.N. Hydrothermal–Microwave Processing for Starch Extraction from Mexican Avocado Seeds: Operational Conditions and Characterization. Processes 2020, 8, 759.

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