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Characterizing a Newly Designed Steel-Wool-Based Household Filter for Safe Drinking Water Provision: Hydraulic Conductivity and Efficiency for Pathogen Removal
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Steel Wool for Water Treatment: Intrinsic Reactivity and Defluoridation Efficiency

Angewandte Geologie, Universität Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala B.P. 24157, Cameroon
Department of Water and Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha P.O. Box 447, Tanzania
Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik Fakultät für Geowissenschaften Ruhr-Universität Bochum Universitätsstraße, 15044801 Bochum, Germany
School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Fo Cheng Xi Road 8, Nanjing 211100, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(3), 265;
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
Studies were undertaken to characterize the intrinsic reactivity of Fe0-bearing steel wool (Fe0 SW) materials using the ethylenediaminetetraacetate method (EDTA test). A 2 mM Na2-EDTA solution was used in batch and column leaching experiments. A total of 15 Fe0 SW specimens and one granular iron (GI) were tested in batch experiments. Column experiments were performed with four Fe0 SW of the same grade but from various suppliers and the GI. The conventional EDTA test (0.100 g Fe0, 50 mL EDTA, 96 h) protocol was modified in two manners: (i) Decreasing the experimental duration (down to 24 h) and (ii) decreasing the Fe0 mass (down to 0.01 g). Column leaching studies involved glass columns filled to 1/4 with sand, on top of which 0.50 g of Fe0 was placed. Columns were daily gravity fed with EDTA and effluent analyzed for Fe concentration. Selected reactive Fe0 SW specimens were additionally investigated for discoloration efficiency of methylene blue (MB) in shaken batch experiments (75 rpm) for two and eight weeks. The last series of experiments tested six selected Fe0 SW for water defluoridation in Fe0/sand columns. Results showed that (i) the modifications of the conventional EDTA test enabled a better characterization of Fe0 SW; (ii) after 53 leaching events the Fe0 SW showing the best kEDTA value released the lowest amount of iron; (iii) all Fe0 specimens were efficient at discoloring cationic MB after eight weeks; (iv) limited water defluoridation by all six Fe0 SW was documented. Fluoride removal in the column systems appears to be a viable tool to characterize the Fe0 long-term corrosion kinetics. Further research should include correlation of the intrinsic reactivity of SW specimens with their efficiency at removing different contaminants in water. View Full-Text
Keywords: dye discoloration; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; intrinsic reactivity; water defluoridation; zero-valent iron dye discoloration; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; intrinsic reactivity; water defluoridation; zero-valent iron
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Hildebrant, B.; Ndé-Tchoupé, A.I.; Lufingo, M.; Licha, T.; Noubactep, C. Steel Wool for Water Treatment: Intrinsic Reactivity and Defluoridation Efficiency. Processes 2020, 8, 265.

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