It is well established that the use of synthetic material in water pipes significantly affects the quality of domestic water, especially trace organics that are leached through with the flow of water. In the present study, the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water pipes manufactured of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been investigated using static laboratory conditions and in residential areas. The contact of deionized water with various PVC pipes for three successive test periods of 24, 48, and 72 h duration has been made. Twenty water samples were collected from houses within Medina Al-Munawarah residential area and were analyzed by using solid phase extraction, followed by high resolution gas chromatography with flame ionized detector (GC-FID). The presence of carbon tetrachloride (CTC), toluene, chloroform, styrene, o-xylene, bromoform (BF), dibromomethane (DBM), cis-1,3-dichloropropane (Cis-1,3-DCP), and trans-1,3-dichloropropane (Trans-1,3-DCP) was initially confirmed. The most frequent contaminants found were DBM, CTC, and toluene that were monitored in 55%, 50%, and 45% of samples, respectively. The levels of CTC, Cis-1,3-DCP, and Trans-1,3-DCP were found to exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) limits in 50%, 20%, and 20% of samples, respectively. The migration test indicated that nine of the targeted contaminants occur in a double distilled water sample incubated in pipe in laboratory level experiment. This implies that these components are more likely to migrate from PVC pipe in home plumbing systems network.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited