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Open AccessArticle

Leaching of Organic Toxic Compounds from PVC Water Pipes in Medina Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1
Center for Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Taibah University, Medina Al Munawarah-41411, Saudi Arabia
3
Centre for Tropical Climate Change System, Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(10), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100641
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 7 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Modelling)
It is well established that the use of synthetic material in water pipes significantly affects the quality of domestic water, especially trace organics that are leached through with the flow of water. In the present study, the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water pipes manufactured of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been investigated using static laboratory conditions and in residential areas. The contact of deionized water with various PVC pipes for three successive test periods of 24, 48, and 72 h duration has been made. Twenty water samples were collected from houses within Medina Al-Munawarah residential area and were analyzed by using solid phase extraction, followed by high resolution gas chromatography with flame ionized detector (GC-FID). The presence of carbon tetrachloride (CTC), toluene, chloroform, styrene, o-xylene, bromoform (BF), dibromomethane (DBM), cis-1,3-dichloropropane (Cis-1,3-DCP), and trans-1,3-dichloropropane (Trans-1,3-DCP) was initially confirmed. The most frequent contaminants found were DBM, CTC, and toluene that were monitored in 55%, 50%, and 45% of samples, respectively. The levels of CTC, Cis-1,3-DCP, and Trans-1,3-DCP were found to exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) limits in 50%, 20%, and 20% of samples, respectively. The migration test indicated that nine of the targeted contaminants occur in a double distilled water sample incubated in pipe in laboratory level experiment. This implies that these components are more likely to migrate from PVC pipe in home plumbing systems network. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile compounds; drinking water; solid phase extraction (SPE); polyvinylchloride (PVC) volatile compounds; drinking water; solid phase extraction (SPE); polyvinylchloride (PVC)
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Shaikh, M.M.; Mohd Hanafiah, M.; O. Basheer, A. Leaching of Organic Toxic Compounds from PVC Water Pipes in Medina Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Processes 2019, 7, 641.

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