# Hydrodynamic and Hydrographic Modeling of Istanbul Strait

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### Model Setup

^{−4}m

^{2}/s and 10

^{–5}m

^{2}/s [35]. As mentioned above, the k-$\epsilon $ turbulence model is selected in the model.

## 3. Results

^{2}/s is much more realistic than a value around 1 m

^{2}/s, considering that the mesh (grid) size adopted in the present study is in the order of hundreds to thousands of meters, and the enhanced resistance due to subgrid turbulence should be accounted for in the horizontal eddy viscosity value.

#### 3.1. Hydrodynamic Model Calibration

#### 3.2. Hydrographic Model Validation

## 4. Discussion

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Study area and hydrographic observation stations in the Istanbul strait [25].

**Figure 2.**Schematic description of the longitudinal section of the Istanbul Strait based on [2].

**Figure 4.**The first row shows (

**a**) the salinity and (

**b**) temperature of the Black Sea boundaries of the Istanbul Strait; and the second row shows (

**c**) the salinity and (

**d**) temperature of the Marmara Sea boundaries of the Istanbul Strait.

**Figure 9.**Salinity profiles observed (

**a**) and modeled (

**b**) in January, observed (

**c**) and modeled (

**d**) in April, observed (

**e**) and modeled (

**f**) in July, and observed (

**g**) and modeled (

**h**) in October.

**Figure 10.**Temperature profiles observed (

**a**) and modeled (

**b**) in January, observed (

**c**) and modeled (

**d**) in April, observed (

**e**) and modeled (

**f**) in July, and observed (

**g**) and modeled (

**h**) in October.

Parameter | Normalized Sensitivity Index | Sensitivity Level |
---|---|---|

Manning Roughness Coefficient | 0.1696 | Medium |

Horizontal Eddy Viscosity | 0.5352 | High |

Horizontal Eddy Diffusivity | 0.0122 | Low |

Vertical Eddy Viscosity | 0.0195 | Low |

Vertical Eddy Diffusivity | 0.0975 | Low |

Wind Stress Coefficient A | 0.0073 | Low |

Wind Speed Coefficient A | 0.0052 | Low |

Wind Stress Coefficient B | 0.0975 | Low |

Wind Speed Coefficient B | 0.0975 | Low |

Wind Stress Coefficient C | 0.0975 | Low |

Wind Speed Coefficient C | 0 | Low |

Secchi Depth | 0 | Low |

Stanton Number | 0 | Low |

Dalton Number | 0 | Low |

Slope in log–log Spectrum | 0.2869 | Medium |

Prandtl–Schmidt Number | 0.5188 | High |

Spatial Low-Pass Filter Coefficient | 1.0000 | Highest |

**Table 2.**Calibrated values of the model parameters using three methods. CMA-ES: covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy, LM: Levenberg–Marquardt.

Parameter | Manual | PEST-LM | CMA-ES |
---|---|---|---|

Manning Roughness Coefficient | 0.02 | 0.0304 | 0.023 |

Horizontal Eddy Viscosity (m^{2}/s) | 1 | 9.8598 | 10 |

Slope in log–log Spectrum | −5/3 | −1.6390 | −1.6667 |

Prandtl–Schmidt Number | 0.7 | 0.8087 | 0.7 |

Spatial Low-Pass Filter Coefficient | 0.3 | 0.2950 | 0.3333 |

**Table 3.**The average of 10 years of in situ flow rate values measured in the north and south of the strait [21].

Months | Upper Layer Flow Rate North (m^{3}/s) | Lower Layer Flow Rate North (m^{3}/s) | Upper Layer Flow Rate South (m^{3}/s) | Lower Layer Flow Rate South (m^{3}/s) |
---|---|---|---|---|

January | 8950 | −10,030 | 9150 | −9720 |

February | 14,260 | −5810 | 16,080 | −5520 |

March | 15,320 | −6860 | 16,190 | −6240 |

April | 16,510 | −4930 | 19,150 | −4860 |

May | 16,610 | −5050 | 18,410 | −4980 |

June | 15,740 | −5530 | 17,590 | −5730 |

July | 12,510 | −7830 | 12,210 | −8220 |

August | 12,670 | −8300 | 13,890 | −8270 |

September | 9000 | −10,190 | 9060 | −9960 |

October | 8030 | −13,000 | 7880 | −12,010 |

November | 9950 | −9330 | 9210 | −9100 |

December | 14,240 | −8410 | 14,800 | −8730 |

Average | 12815.8 | −7939.2 | 13635.0 | −7778.3 |

Month | Temperature SPAEF (CORR) | Salinity SPAEF (CORR) |
---|---|---|

January | 0.51 (0.94) | 0.47 (0.94) |

April | 0.55 (0.92) | 0.42 (0.89) |

July | −0.45 (−0.04) | 0.69 (0.96) |

October | 0.37 (0.92) | 0.52 (0.92) |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Koşucu, M.M.; Demirel, M.C.; Kirca, V.S.O.; Özger, M.
Hydrodynamic and Hydrographic Modeling of Istanbul Strait. *Processes* **2019**, *7*, 710.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100710

**AMA Style**

Koşucu MM, Demirel MC, Kirca VSO, Özger M.
Hydrodynamic and Hydrographic Modeling of Istanbul Strait. *Processes*. 2019; 7(10):710.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100710

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Koşucu, Mehmet Melih, Mehmet Cüneyd Demirel, V.S. Ozgur Kirca, and Mehmet Özger.
2019. "Hydrodynamic and Hydrographic Modeling of Istanbul Strait" *Processes* 7, no. 10: 710.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100710