2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.6. Analysis of Qualitative Data
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Physical Activity and Physical Education in School Settings for EYFS
3.2. Benefits of PE and PA for Young Children
3.3. The Barriers and Challenges to Achieving Sufficient PA/PE for Children Faced by Educators, Parents, and Children
3.4. Educator Knowledge of Fundamental Movement Skills and Key Opportunities for Development
3.5. Intervention Experience, Needs, and Training Delivery
3.6. Limitations and Strengths
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix B. Interview Schedule: Name of Study: The Value of Physical Education and Activity for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England
- What does the phrase “fundamental movement skills” mean to you as a practitioner?
- Are there any particular categories you would split these skills in to?
- Do you feel your school provides adequate opportunity for children to develop their FMS?
- Do you think physical skills develop as a child matures, or do you think physical skills should be taught?
- Do you feel PE should hold the same value as other academic subjects, especially at EYFS?
- Do you think PE should be supported by scientific research methods? What do you think the benefits of doing this are?
- Would you feel confident delivering a PE intervention to an EYFS class if training was provided? Why?
- What would make you more prepared for delivery of these?
- Do you believe the physical activity government guidelines of 180 min per day for children aged 5 years and below are sufficient and achievable? What barrier do you think teachers and schools face to achieving at least 30 min/day of MVPA for children?
- Within your school environment or the environment that you work in, how do you approach achieving these guidelines?
- Do you think the approach could be improved?
- Do you think there are benefits to children being physically active?
- What do you feel children achieve from being physically active?
- Do you notice any key differences between children who are more physically capable than others?
- Physically, socially, academically?
- With a lack of research around stability and balance skills at the ages of 4 to 5 years old in the UK, how important do you think these skills are? How would you work on these with EYFS students?
- What sort of tasks do you think balance and stability aid within the school environment and in PE?
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|Physical activity and physical education in school settings for EYFS 1||Opportunities for PA 2||“break times, lunchtimes and PE 3 and play opportunities” Jonny (E).|
“There’s lots and lots of opportunities for outdoor play, and there’s equipment that’s rotated around the week” Lorna (T)
|Extra-curricular||“numerous different football clubs for boys and girls, multisport clubs, dance, and gymnastics that happen after school” Caitlin (T)|
|Benefits of PE and PA for young children||Confidence||“good self-esteem, so just being able to do those fundamental movement skills, it gives them so much confidence, so that they feel competent in something” Kristen (T)|
|Excelling outside the classroom||“because there’s more to you than the calculations you can do in your head or how well you can speak a different language” Melissa (T)|
|The barriers and challenges to achieving sufficient PA/PE for children faced by educators, parents, and children||Teacher knowledge||“Unless they’ve [EYFS teachers] got a PE background they lack the confidence to teach something like that (PE)” Caitlin (T)|
|Sedentary Lifestyles||“kids have maybe got a tablet, and you don’t move on a tablet, do you? It’s just the way people parent has changed hasn’t it, because life changed” Leah (T)|
|Deprivation||“can’t afford to take them to do extra-curricular things, so they tend to sit in front of a TV all of the time…even just going for a walk and climbing, things like that, they don’t do” Caitlin (T)|
|Parent beliefs||“She turns around to me and says, ‘my mum says I don’t need friends and I don’t need sport to get into Oxford’” Kristen (T)|
|Educator knowledge of fundamental movement skills and key opportunities for development||Basic FMSs 4||“ball skills”, “balance skills”, and “locomotor skills” Sarah (T) and Jonny (E)|
“Running, jumping, hopping, throwing, skipping, and catching” were skills that eight educators mentioned.
|EYFS framework||“moving and handling” Melissa (T)|
|Parent support||“you don’t always have the enthusiastic parents that want to teach them” Ruth (E)|
|Intervention experience, needs, and training delivery||Experience||“we’ll get people coming in and leading these interventions, and it’s great for those six weeks” Brigit (H)|
|Training delivery||“someone delivering it first for you to watch as an example of it” Leah (T)|
“the equipment or access to a computer programme or the notes” Karis (H)
|Intervention elements||“Rather than bespoke lesson plans, because every class, every child is different…maybe an overarching view of their skill development and progression of skills document” Sarah (T)|
“autistic children, your children with disabilities, inclusive games with them (children)” Steven (T)
|Using relevant research||“it can be short and sharp information, and ‘try this’, rather than feeling like you’ve got to go back to a journal to read it” Brigit (H)|
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