Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.6. Analysis of Qualitative Data
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Physical Activity and Physical Education in School Settings for EYFS
3.2. Benefits of PE and PA for Young Children
3.3. The Barriers and Challenges to Achieving Sufficient PA/PE for Children Faced by Educators, Parents, and Children
3.4. Educator Knowledge of Fundamental Movement Skills and Key Opportunities for Development
3.5. Intervention Experience, Needs, and Training Delivery
3.6. Limitations and Strengths
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix B. Interview Schedule: Name of Study: The Value of Physical Education and Activity for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England
- What does the phrase “fundamental movement skills” mean to you as a practitioner?
- Are there any particular categories you would split these skills in to?
- Do you feel your school provides adequate opportunity for children to develop their FMS?
- Do you think physical skills develop as a child matures, or do you think physical skills should be taught?
- Do you feel PE should hold the same value as other academic subjects, especially at EYFS?
- Do you think PE should be supported by scientific research methods? What do you think the benefits of doing this are?
- Would you feel confident delivering a PE intervention to an EYFS class if training was provided? Why?
- What would make you more prepared for delivery of these?
- Do you believe the physical activity government guidelines of 180 min per day for children aged 5 years and below are sufficient and achievable? What barrier do you think teachers and schools face to achieving at least 30 min/day of MVPA for children?
- Within your school environment or the environment that you work in, how do you approach achieving these guidelines?
- Do you think the approach could be improved?
- Do you think there are benefits to children being physically active?
- What do you feel children achieve from being physically active?
- Do you notice any key differences between children who are more physically capable than others?
- Physically, socially, academically?
- With a lack of research around stability and balance skills at the ages of 4 to 5 years old in the UK, how important do you think these skills are? How would you work on these with EYFS students?
- What sort of tasks do you think balance and stability aid within the school environment and in PE?
- Department for Health and Social Care Physical Activity Guidelines: UK Chief Medical Officers’ Report. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/physical-activity-guidelines-uk-chief-medical-officers-report (accessed on 27 January 2021).
- Sport England. Active Lives Children and Young People Survey Academic Year 2018/19; Sport England: London, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- NHS Digital National Child Measurement Programme, England 2019/20 School Year. Available online: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/national-child-measurement-programme/2019-20-school-year (accessed on 21 January 2021).
- Stodden, D.F.; Goodway, J.D.; Langendorfer, S.J.; Roberton, M.A.; Rudisill, M.E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia, L.E. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship. Quest 2008, 60, 290–306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carson, V.; Lee, E.-Y.; Hewitt, L.; Jennings, C.; Hunter, S.; Kuzik, N.; Stearns, J.A.; Unrau, S.P.; Poitras, V.J.; Gray, C.; et al. Systematic Review of the Relationships between Physical Activity and Health Indicators in the Early Years (0–4 Years). BMC Public Health 2017, 17, 854. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reilly, J.J.; Coyle, J.; Kelly, L.; Burke, G.; Grant, S.; Paton, J.Y. An Objective Method for Measurement of Sedentary Behavior in 3- to 4-Year Olds. Obes. Res. 2003, 11, 1155–1158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Gallahue, D.L.; Donnelly, F.C. Developmental Physical Education for All Children, 4th ed.; Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL, USA, 2003; ISBN 978-0-7360-7120-8. [Google Scholar]
- Capio, C.M.; Sit, C.H.P.; Abernethy, B.; Masters, R.S.W. Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy. Res. Dev. Disabil. 2012, 33, 1235–1241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Logan, S.; Webster, E.; Getchell, N.; Pfeiffer, K.; Robinson, L. Relationship between Fundamental Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity during Childhood and Adolescence: A Systematic Review. Kinesiol. Rev. 2015, 4, 416–426. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Robinson, L.E.; Stodden, D.F.; Barnett, L.M.; Lopes, V.P.; Logan, S.W.; Rodrigues, L.P.; D’Hondt, E. Motor Competence and Its Effect on Positive Developmental Trajectories of Health. Sports Med. 2015, 45, 1273–1284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- School Sport and Activity Action Plan. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/school-sport-and-activity-action-plan (accessed on 8 February 2021).
- Duncan, M.J.; Roscoe, C.M.; Noon, M.; Clark, C.C.; O’Brien, W.; Eyre, E.L. Run, Jump, Throw and Catch: How Proficient Are Children Attending English Schools at the Fundamental Motor Skills Identified as Key within the School Curriculum? Eur. Phys. Educ. Rev. 2019, 26, 814–826. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Physical Education Programmes of Study: Key Stages 1 and 2. National Curriculum in England. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-framework-for-key-stages-1-to-4 (accessed on 29 January 2021).
- Gallahue, D.L.; Ozmun, J.C.; Goodway, J.D. Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults, 7th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Eldredge, L.K.B.; Markham, C.M.; Ruiter, R.A.; Fernández, M.E.; Kok, G.; Parcel, G.S. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach, 4th ed.; Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Gordon, E.S.; Tucker, P.; Burke, S.M.; Carron, A.V. Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions for Preschoolers: A Meta-Analysis. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 2013, 84, 287–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hesketh, K.R.; McMinn, A.M.; Ekelund, U.; Sharp, S.J.; Collings, P.J.; Harvey, N.C.; Godfrey, K.M.; Inskip, H.M.; Cooper, C.; van Sluijs, E.M. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Four-Year-Old British Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Activity Patterns Segmented across the Day. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2014, 11, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Morley, D.; Till, K.; Ogilvie, P.; Turner, G. Influences of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on the Motor Proficiency of Children in the UK. Hum. Mov. Sci. 2015, 44, 150–156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Britton, J.; Farquharson, C.; Sibieta, L. 2019 Annual Report on Education Spending in England. Available online: https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/14369 (accessed on 21 January 2021).
- Department for Education PE and Sport Premium for Primary Schools. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/pe-and-sport-premium-for-primary-schools (accessed on 15 March 2021).
- Lawless, W.; Borlase-Bune, M.; Fleet, M. The Primary PE and Sport Premium from a Staff Perspective. Educ. 3-13 2019, 48, 446–454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Early Years Foundation Stage Setting the Standards for Learning, Development and Care for Children from Birth to Five. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/early-years-foundation-stage-framework--2 (accessed on 8 February 2021).
- Newell, K.M. Motor Development in Children: Aspects of Coordination and Control. In Constraints on the Development of Coordination; Martinus Nijhoff: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986. [Google Scholar]
- Patnode, C.D.; Lytle, L.A.; Erickson, D.J.; Sirard, J.R.; Barr-Anderson, D.; Story, M. The Relative Influence of Demographic, Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors on Physical Activity among Boys and Girls. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2010, 7, 79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dobell, A.; Pringle, A.; Faghy, M.A.; Roscoe, C.M.P. Fundamental Movement Skills and Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels during Early Childhood: A Systematic Review. Children 2020, 7, 224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Janssen, I.; LeBlanc, A.G. Systematic Review of the Health Benefits of Physical Activity and Fitness in School-Aged Children and Youth. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2010, 7, 40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lander, N.; Eather, N.; Morgan, P.J.; Salmon, J.; Barnett, L.M. Characteristics of Teacher Training in School-Based Physical Education Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills and/or Physical Activity: A Systematic Review. Sports Med. 2017, 47, 135–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sport England. Leaning from the Local Exercise Action Pilots; Sport England: London UK, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- NICE. Physical Activity for Children and Young People. Public Health Guideline; NICE: Belfast, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Bryman, A. Social Research Methods, 4th ed.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2012; ISBN 978-0-19-958805-3. [Google Scholar]
- Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government. The English Indices of Deprivation 2019 (IoD2019); Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government: London, UK, 2019.
- Bernard, H.R.; Bernard, H.R. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches; SAGE: London, UK, 2013; ISBN 978-1-4129-7854-5. [Google Scholar]
- Griggs, G. For Sale—Primary Physical Education. £20 per Hour or Nearest Offer. Educ. 3–13 2010, 38, 39–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Xin, F.; Chen, S.-T.; Clark, C.; Hong, J.-T.; Liu, Y.; Cai, Y.-J. Relationship between Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity in Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3566. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saldaña, J. Fundamentals of Qualitative Research; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Braun, V.; Clarke, V. Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qual. Res. Psychol. 2006, 3, 77–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bentley, G.F.; Goodred, J.K.; Jago, R.; Sebire, S.J.; Lucas, P.J.; Fox, K.R.; Stewart-Brown, S.; Turner, K.M. Parents’ Views on Child Physical Activity and Their Implications for Physical Activity Parenting Interventions: A Qualitative Study. BMC Pediatr. 2012, 12, 180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dwyer, G.M.; Higgs, J.; Hardy, L.L.; Baur, L.A. What Do Parents and Preschool Staff Tell Us about Young Children’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2008, 5, 66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Roscoe, C.M.P.; James, R.S.; Duncan, M.J. Preschool Staff and Parents’ Perceptions of Preschool Children’s Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills from an Area of High Deprivation: A Qualitative Study. Qual. Res. Sport Exerc. Health 2017, 9, 619–635. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thompson, J.L.; Jago, R.; Brockman, R.; Cartwright, K.; Page, A.S.; Fox, K.R. Physically Active Families—De-Bunking the Myth? A Qualitative Study of Family Participation in Physical Activity. Child Care Health Dev. 2010, 36, 265–274. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ryan, G.W.; Bernard, H.R. Techniques to Identify Themes. Field Methods 2003, 15, 85–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Cools, W.; De Martelaer, K.; Samaey, C.; Andries, C. Fundamental Movement Skill Performance of Preschool Children in Relation to Family Context. J. Sports Sci. 2011, 29, 649–660. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chesham, R.A.; Booth, J.N.; Sweeney, E.L.; Ryde, G.C.; Gorely, T.; Brooks, N.E.; Moran, C.N. The Daily Mile Makes Primary School Children More Active, Less Sedentary and Improves Their Fitness and Body Composition: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study. BMC Med. 2018, 16, 64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ward, G.; Scott, D. Negotiating the Daily Mile Challenge; Looking-like a Walking Break from the Classroom. Sport Educ. Soc. 2021, 26, 119–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schmalz, D.L.; Kerstetter, D.L. Girlie Girls and Manly Men: Chidren’s Stigma Consciousness of Gender in Sports and Physical Activities. J. Leis. Res. 2006, 38, 536–557. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Weisgram, E.S.; Fulcher, M.; Dinella, L.M. Pink Gives Girls Permission: Exploring the Roles of Explicit Gender Labels and Gender-Typed Colors on Preschool Children’s Toy Preferences. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 2014, 35, 401–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lawson, C.; Eyre, E.L.J.; Tallis, J.; Duncan, M.J. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency among British Primary School Children: Analysis at a Behavioral Component Level. Percept. Mot. Skills 2021, 128, 625–648. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Education Inspection Framework. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/education-inspection-framework (accessed on 8 February 2021).
- de Waal, E. Fundamental Movement Skills and Academic Performance of 5- to 6-Year-Old Preschoolers. Early Child. Educ. J. 2019, 47, 455–464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bryant, E.S.; James, R.S.; Birch, S.L.; Duncan, M. Prediction of Habitual Physical Activity Level and Weight Status from Fundamental Movement Skill Level. J. Sports Sci. 2014, 32, 1775–1782. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maltagliati, S.; Carraro, A.; Escriva-Boulley, G.; Bertollo, M.; Tessier, D.; Colangelo, A.; Papaioannou, A.G.; di Fronso, S.; Cheval, B.; Gobbi, E.; et al. Changes in Physical Education Teachers’ Motivations Predict the Evolution of Behaviors Promoting Students’ Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Lockdown 2021. SportRxiv 2021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jones, L.; Green, K. Who Teaches Primary Physical Education? Change and Transformation through the Eyes of Subject Leaders. Sport Educ. Soc. 2017, 22, 759–771. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Edwardson, C.L.; Gorely, T. Parental Influences on Different Types and Intensities of Physical Activity in Youth: A Systematic Review. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 2010, 11, 522–535. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fogelholm, M.; Nuutinen, O.; Pasanen, M.; Myöhänen, E.; Säätelä, T. Parent–Child Relationship of Physical Activity Patterns and Obesity. Int. J. Obes. 1999, 23, 1262–1268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hinkley, T.; Crawford, D.; Salmon, J.; Okely, A.D.; Hesketh, K. Preschool Children and Physical Activity. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2008, 34, 435–441.e7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sallis, J.F.; Prochaska, J.J.; Taylor, W.C. A Review of Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2000, 963–975. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tremblay, M.S. Challenges in Global Surveillance of Physical Activity. Lancet Child Adolesc. Health 2019, 4, 2–3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bolger, L.E.; Bolger, L.A.; O’Neill, C.; Coughlan, E.; O’Brien, W.; Lacey, S.; Burns, C.; Bardid, F. Global Levels of Fundamental Motor Skills in Children: A Systematic Review. J. Sports Sci. 2020, 1–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Foweather, L.; McWhannell, N.; Henaghan, J.; Lees, A.; Stratton, G.; Batterham, A.M. Effect of a 9-Wk. after-School Multiskills Club on Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency in 8- to 9-Yr.-Old Children: An Exploratory Trial. Percept. Mot. Skills 2008, 106, 745–754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Department for Education. School Teacher Workforce; Department for Education: London, UK, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Youth Sport Trust. Evidence Paper: The Impact of COVID-19 Restriction on Children and Young People; Youth Sport Trust: Loughborough, UK, 2020. [Google Scholar]
|Physical activity and physical education in school settings for EYFS 1||Opportunities for PA 2||“break times, lunchtimes and PE 3 and play opportunities” Jonny (E).|
“There’s lots and lots of opportunities for outdoor play, and there’s equipment that’s rotated around the week” Lorna (T)
|Extra-curricular||“numerous different football clubs for boys and girls, multisport clubs, dance, and gymnastics that happen after school” Caitlin (T)|
|Benefits of PE and PA for young children||Confidence||“good self-esteem, so just being able to do those fundamental movement skills, it gives them so much confidence, so that they feel competent in something” Kristen (T)|
|Excelling outside the classroom||“because there’s more to you than the calculations you can do in your head or how well you can speak a different language” Melissa (T)|
|The barriers and challenges to achieving sufficient PA/PE for children faced by educators, parents, and children||Teacher knowledge||“Unless they’ve [EYFS teachers] got a PE background they lack the confidence to teach something like that (PE)” Caitlin (T)|
|Sedentary Lifestyles||“kids have maybe got a tablet, and you don’t move on a tablet, do you? It’s just the way people parent has changed hasn’t it, because life changed” Leah (T)|
|Deprivation||“can’t afford to take them to do extra-curricular things, so they tend to sit in front of a TV all of the time…even just going for a walk and climbing, things like that, they don’t do” Caitlin (T)|
|Parent beliefs||“She turns around to me and says, ‘my mum says I don’t need friends and I don’t need sport to get into Oxford’” Kristen (T)|
|Educator knowledge of fundamental movement skills and key opportunities for development||Basic FMSs 4||“ball skills”, “balance skills”, and “locomotor skills” Sarah (T) and Jonny (E)|
“Running, jumping, hopping, throwing, skipping, and catching” were skills that eight educators mentioned.
|EYFS framework||“moving and handling” Melissa (T)|
|Parent support||“you don’t always have the enthusiastic parents that want to teach them” Ruth (E)|
|Intervention experience, needs, and training delivery||Experience||“we’ll get people coming in and leading these interventions, and it’s great for those six weeks” Brigit (H)|
|Training delivery||“someone delivering it first for you to watch as an example of it” Leah (T)|
“the equipment or access to a computer programme or the notes” Karis (H)
|Intervention elements||“Rather than bespoke lesson plans, because every class, every child is different…maybe an overarching view of their skill development and progression of skills document” Sarah (T)|
“autistic children, your children with disabilities, inclusive games with them (children)” Steven (T)
|Using relevant research||“it can be short and sharp information, and ‘try this’, rather than feeling like you’ve got to go back to a journal to read it” Brigit (H)|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Dobell, A.; Pringle, A.; Faghy, M.A.; Roscoe, C.M.P. Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England. Children 2021, 8, 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050338
Dobell A, Pringle A, Faghy MA, Roscoe CMP. Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England. Children. 2021; 8(5):338. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050338Chicago/Turabian Style
Dobell, Alexandra, Andy Pringle, Mark A. Faghy, and Clare M. P. Roscoe. 2021. "Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England" Children 8, no. 5: 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050338