Generalized Net Model of Forest Zone Monitoring by UAVs
2. Materials and Methods
- drone resilience to unfavorable environmental influence;
- carrying capacity which allows for the transportation of necessary equipment (1–5 kg; in fire extinguishing, up to 30 kg);
- sufficient flight duration to explore a large perimeter of the observation zone (30–120 min);
- drone adaptability for installing (embedding) different types of video and sensory equipment (video cameras, thermovision cameras, LiDAR, sensor for air parameter analysis, mapping sensors, etc.);
- speed for approaching the object and precise positioning (for instance, 50–60 km/h for the approach, and capability for positioning the drone in the air over the object);
- ease of use (comfortable joystick for manipulation and helm or tablet for observation);
- price for acquisition, exploitation, and servicing.
- transmission speed from UAV to base station (depot, center of operations), which may reach 20 Mbit/s for high-resolution video streaming;
- distance of communication: required distance for ensuring lossless data transmission (e.g., 20 km);
- energy consumed for the communication;
- the size and weight of the device.
3. Description of Generalized Net Model of Forest Terrain Monitoring
- tokens, which represent the drones. First, they are in place , which denotes the drone depot or center of operation. Drones are either reconnaissance drone or specialized drone
- tokens, which represent the firefighting command located at place , and particular squad that attends the detected zone of the fire;
- tokens, which represent communicated signals from drones to the operational center and the firefighting command or from the firefighting squad at the fire site to the center of operation.
- “The moment for take-off of subsequent reconnaissance drone has come”;
- “There is a signal from the reconnaissance drone regarding the presence of potential danger”.
- “The fly-through of the region is completed, and no accidents have occurred”,
- “Detected fire or potential danger for its occurrence”,
- “The fly-through of the region has not been completed”.
- “Fire detected by reconnaissance drone”;
- “Additional information about the fire must be gathered”;
- “The task of the drone is completed”;
- “The drone is still traveling to the the area for observation”.
- “There is fire or potential danger of fire occurrence.”
- “The check for fire or potential danger of fire occurrence is complete”.
- “Fire is detected”.
- “The firefighting squad has arrived at the location of the fire”;
- “The firefighting squad is still on the way”.
- “Specialized drone must be dispatched to gather additional information”;
- “The fire is extinguished, and the firefighting squad must return to the base”;
- “The fire has not been extinguished yet”.
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Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Atanassov, K.T.; Vassilev, P.; Atanassova, V.; Roeva, O.; Iliev, R.; Zoteva, D.; Bureva, V.; Mavrov, D.; Alexandrov, A. Generalized Net Model of Forest Zone Monitoring by UAVs. Mathematics 2021, 9, 2874. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9222874
Atanassov KT, Vassilev P, Atanassova V, Roeva O, Iliev R, Zoteva D, Bureva V, Mavrov D, Alexandrov A. Generalized Net Model of Forest Zone Monitoring by UAVs. Mathematics. 2021; 9(22):2874. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9222874Chicago/Turabian Style
Atanassov, Krassimir T., Peter Vassilev, Vassia Atanassova, Olympia Roeva, Rosen Iliev, Dafina Zoteva, Veselina Bureva, Deyan Mavrov, and Alexander Alexandrov. 2021. "Generalized Net Model of Forest Zone Monitoring by UAVs" Mathematics 9, no. 22: 2874. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9222874