# An Extended Constructive Alignment Model in Teaching Electromagnetism to Engineering Undergraduates

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Proposed Model

#### 2.1. Entry Survey

#### 2.2. The Three-Level Learning Objectives

- Gauss’s Law for electrostatic fields and Maxwell’s first equation.
- Gauss’s Law for magnetostatic fields and Maxwell’s second equation.
- Faraday’s Law for time-varying electric fields and Maxwell’s third equation.
- Ampere’s Law for time-varying electromagnetic fields and Maxwell’s fourth equation.
- Plane wave solution.
- Poynting theory, electromagnetic power, basic electromagnetic radiation principles, and their applications.

#### 2.3. Three-Level Assessment and Evaluation Methods

#### 2.4. Student Self-Assessment and Instructor Assessment Rubrics

## 3. Discussion

## 4. Conclusions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

- As of now, after completing my undergraduate degree, I am planning on:
- Doing graduate studies
- Working in the industry
- Doing my own thing, for example, painting, carving, sculpture

- If I can get one thing out of this course it would be:
- Nothing, I registered just because it is required. I have a different subject interest.
- Try this subject and see whether I should pursue this for my graduate studies
- Learn how things work and apply it at work

- While registering for this course
- I knew/heard this course it very mathematics and physics intensive
- Oops, I did not know that. But I can catch up quickly.
- Oh no, why? Engineers don’t need math or physics.

- We all learn in different ways. But if I have to choose one, that I learn quickly by
- Watching and feeling
- Watching and thinking
- Doing and feeling
- Doing and thinking

- Knock on wood, but if my performances at exams are not satisfactory
- I will sue the instructor. I am exceptional, and it is always the instructor’s fault.
- It might be a bad day. I want to write a make-up exam.
- I get nervous at exams. If so I will do an extra project or a presentation, whichever it takes to show my actual knowledge.

## Appendix B

- A spherical charge cloud with volume charge density ${\rho}_{v}$ and radius $a$, is located at the origin of a spherical coordinate system. Determine the electric flux density and electric field intensity at a distance $r$ such that,
- $r<a$
- $r\ge a$

- An infinite length of a wire contains a line charge density of ${\rho}_{l}$. Choosing a suitable coordinate system, calculate the electric field intensity at a radial distance $r$ from the wire.
- Two hollow spheres are located at the origin of a spherical coordinate system. Surface of the inner sphere carries a total charge of $+Q$ and the surface of the outer sphere carries a total charge of $-Q.$ The space between the spheres is filled with air.
- Find the electric field intensity at a radial distance $r:arb$
- Calculate the potential difference between the two spheres
- How much of a capacitance is developed between the two spheres?

## Appendix C

## Appendix D

- A 15W EM radiator is isotopically radiating energy equally in all directions. Your task is to calculate the surface area of a dish antenna located 15 m from the radiator to collect 1W of power.
- What should be the radiating surface for the above radiator? …………………………………………………………………….
- Calculate the average power density 15 m from the radiator. ………………………………………………………………………….
- If the goal is to collect 1W at the receiver, what should be the surface area of the receiver……………………………………………………………………
- What should be the radius of the above dish ……………………………………….
- If the above dish was replaced by a parabolic antenna with the same radius, will the power collected will increase or decrease?

## References

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**Table 1.**Three level learning objectives and the suggested assessment and evaluation methods (Bloom’s taxonomies are in bold face).

Topic | Learning Objective(s) | Assessment Method(s) | Evaluation Method(s) |
---|---|---|---|

1. Gauss’s Law for electrostatic fields and Maxwell’s first equation. | Low: By the end of this chapter students are expected to explain Maxwell’s first equation and its implications. | Conference, Self-assessment | A quiz Presentation, Case study |

Medium: By the end of this chapter students will be able to apply Maxwell’s first equation to solve real-world physics problems. | Self-assessment quiz, Question and answer, I am in the fog about … | Exam problem, Quiz | |

High: By the end of this chapter students are expected to design a basic static charge dust collector using Maxwell’s first equation. | Chart it out, Concept map | Group project (2-3 students), A term paper Project report | |

2. Gauss’s Law for magnetostatic fields and Maxwell’s second equation. | Low: By the end of this chapter students will be able to discuss the practical implications of Maxwell’s second equation. | Discussion, Conference | Short presentation, Quiz, Short essay |

Medium: By the end of this chapter students will be able to solve problems related to Maxwell’s second equation. | Self-assessment quiz, I am in the fog about, Operation outline | Exam questions, Quizzes | |

High: By the end of this chapter students will be able to create a computer software model of Earth’s magnetic system. | Chart it out, Ticket out the door, Concept map | Problem based project, Research report, Research paper | |

3. Faraday’s Law for time-varying electric fields and Maxwell’s third equation. | Low: By the end of this chapter students are expected to describe Faraday’s law and its implications. | Discussion, Conference | Quiz Short, presentation |

Medium: Upon completing this chapter students are expected to compute values for real-world problems based on Faraday’s law. | Self-assessment quiz, I am in the fog about, Operation outline | Exam questions, Quizzes | |

High: By the end of this chapter students will be able to build an electromagnetic inductor to demonstrate Faraday’s law. | Ticket out the door, Concept map | Experiment, Prototype building | |

4. Ampere’s Law for time-varying electromagnetic fields and Maxwell’s fourth equation. | Low: By the end of this chapter students are able to define Ampere’s law and its implications. | Ticket out the door | Presentation, Short quiz answers, Short essay |

Medium: By the end of this chapter students are able to calculate values for a real-world application using Ampere’s law. | Self-assessment quiz, I am in a fog about, Question and answer | Exam questions, Quizzes | |

High: by the end of this chapter students are expected to construct an electromagnet with given specifications based on Ampere’s law. | Conference, Ticket out the door, Concept map | Short project, Live demonstration, Presentation of a prototype | |

5. Plane wave solution. | Low: By the end of this chapter students are able to state the plane wave solution. | Ticket out the door | Presentation, Short essay, Short quiz |

Medium: By the end of this chapter students are able to manipulate the plane wave solution and apply it in a real-world problem. | Self-assessment quiz, Questions and answers, Operations outline | Exam questions, Quizzes | |

High: By the end of this chapter students will be able to synthesize plane wave electromagnetic propagation in computer software. | Chart it out, Ticket out the door, Concept map | Project, Demonstration, Video presentation | |

6. Poynting theory, electromagnetic power, basic electromagnetic radiation principles, and their applications. | Low: By the end of this chapter students will be able to identify the appropriate concepts used in real-world EM wave propagation applications. | Ticket out the door, Discussion | Presentation, Essay |

Medium: By the end of this chapter students will be able to analyze the real-world EM applications using appropriate concepts. | Self-assessment quiz, I am in the fog about, Operations outline | Exam questions, Long answer quizzes, Summary paper | |

High: By the end of this chapter students are expected to integrate EM concepts and implement a solution to a real-world problem. | Conference, I am in the fog about, Concept map | Prototype building, Video presentation, Term paper, Presentation |

Evaluation Method | Percentage |
---|---|

Quizzes | 10% |

Homework | 15% |

Exams (3 including the finals) | 25% |

Projects (6 mini projects) | 50% |

Topic | Unsatisfactory | Needs Development | Satisfactory | Excellent |
---|---|---|---|---|

Gauss’s Law for electrostatic fields and Maxwell’s first equation. | I can neither both explain, apply nor design an application based on Maxwell’s first equation. | I can explain Maxwell’s first equation. But I can neither apply nor design an application based on it. | I can explain and apply Maxwell’s first equation. But I cannot design an application based on it. | I can explain, apply and design an application using Maxwell’s first equation. |

Gauss’s Law for magnetostatic fields and Maxwell’s second equation. | I can neither discuss the implications, solve problems nor create an application based on Maxwell’s second equation. | I can discuss the implications of Maxwell’s second equation. But I can neither solve problems nor create an application using it. | I can discuss and solve problems using Maxwell’s second equation. But I cannot create an application based on it. | I can discuss the implications, solve problems and create an application based on Maxwell’s second equation. |

Faraday’s Law for time-varying electric fields and Maxwell’s third equation | I can neither describe, compute nor build an application based on Faraday’s law. | I can describe Faraday’s law. But I can neither compute nor build an application based on it. | I can describe and compute values for a practical problem. But I cannot build an application. | I can describe, compute and build an application to demonstrate Faraday’s law. |

Ampere’s Law for time-varying electromagnetic fields and Maxwell’s fourth equation. | I can neither, define, calculate values nor construct an application using Ampere’s law. | I can define Ampere’s law. But I cannot calculate values or construct an application. | I can define and calculate values for problems, using Ampere’s law. But I cannot construct an application. | I can define, calculate values and construct an application based on Ampere’s law. |

Plane wave solution. | I can neither state, manipulate nor synthesize plane wave solution. | I can state plane wave solution. But I cannot manipulate or synthesize it. | I can state and manipulate plane wave solution. But I cannot synthesize it. | I can state, manipulate and synthesize plane wave solution. |

Poynting theory, electromagnetic power, basic electromagnetic radiation principles, and their applications. | I can neither identify, analyze nor integrate practical applications of EM wave propagation concepts. | I can identify EM concepts for real-world scenarios. But I can neither analyze nor integrate concepts. | I can identify and analyze EM concepts for real-world scenarios. But I cannot integrate those for implementations. | I can identify, analyze and integrate EM appropriate EM concepts to implement solutions. |

Topic | Unsatisfactory | Needs Development | Satisfactory | Excellent |
---|---|---|---|---|

Gauss’s Law for electrostatic fields and Maxwell’s first equation. | Student can neither both explain, apply nor design an application based on Maxwell’s first equation. | Student can explain Maxwell’s first equation. But the student can neither apply nor design an application based on it. | Student can explain and apply Maxwell’s first equation. But the student cannot design an application based on it. | Student can explain, apply and design an application using Maxwell’s first equation. |

Gauss’s Law for magnetostatic fields and Maxwell’s second equation. | Student can neither discuss the implications, solve problems nor create an application based on Maxwell’s second equation. | Student can discuss the implications of Maxwell’s second equation. But the student can neither solve problems nor create an application using it. | Student can discuss and solve problems using Maxwell’s second equation. But the student cannot create an application based on it. | Student can discuss the implications, solve problems and create an application based on Maxwell’s second equation. |

Faraday’s Law for time-varying electric fields and Maxwell’s third equation | Student can neither describe, compute nor build an application based on Faraday’s law. | Student can describe Faraday’s law. But the student can neither compute nor build an application based on it. | Student can describe and compute values for a practical problem. But the student cannot build an application. | Student can describe, compute and build an application to demonstrate Faraday’s law. |

Ampere’s Law for time-varying electromagnetic fields and Maxwell’s fourth equation. | Student can neither, define, calculate values nor construct an application using Ampere’s law. | Student can define Ampere’s law. But the student cannot calculate values or construct an application. | Student can define and calculate values for problems, using Ampere’s law. But the student cannot construct an application. | Student can define, calculate values and construct an application based on Ampere’s law. |

Plane wave solution. | Student can neither state, manipulate nor synthesize plane wave solution. | Student can state plane wave solution. But the student cannot manipulate or synthesize it. | Student can state and manipulate plane wave solution. But the student cannot synthesize it. | Student can state, manipulate and synthesize plane wave solution. |

Poynting theory, electromagnetic power, basic electromagnetic radiation principles, and their applications. | Student can neither identify, analyze nor integrate practical applications of EM wave propagation concepts. | Student can identify EM concepts for real-world scenarios. But the student can neither analyze nor integrate concepts. | Student can identify and analyze EM concepts for real-world scenarios. But the student cannot integrate those for implementations. | Student can identify, analyze and integrate EM appropriate EM concepts to implement solutions. |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Maxworth, A.
An Extended Constructive Alignment Model in Teaching Electromagnetism to Engineering Undergraduates. *Educ. Sci.* **2019**, *9*, 199.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030199

**AMA Style**

Maxworth A.
An Extended Constructive Alignment Model in Teaching Electromagnetism to Engineering Undergraduates. *Education Sciences*. 2019; 9(3):199.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030199

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Maxworth, Ashanthi.
2019. "An Extended Constructive Alignment Model in Teaching Electromagnetism to Engineering Undergraduates" *Education Sciences* 9, no. 3: 199.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030199