# Contextualized Mathematical Problems: Perspective of Teachers about Problem Posing

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Mathematical Contextualization and Problem Posing

#### 2.1. Sources for the Selection and Elaboration of Contextualized Problems

#### 2.2. Contexts of Mathematical Problems

## 3. Materials and Methods

#### Design Phase

- Contexts of the problems raised by the teacher in class (15 items).
- Inclusion of historical context in mathematical problems (3 items).
- Sources used by the teacher when posing problems in mathematics lessons (5 items).
- Consideration of the near reality of the student to create or select problems by the teacher (9 items).
- Difficulties presented by the teacher in the creation or selection of mathematical problems (10 items).

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Contexts Used in Mathematical Problems

#### 4.2. Sources Used for the Selection and Creation of Contextualized Mathematical Problems

#### 4.3. Close Reality of the Student in the Elaboration of Mathematical Problems

#### 4.4. Difficulties in Implementing Contextualized Mathematical Problems

#### 4.5. Contexts of the Mathematical Problems Provided by Teachers

If the screen in Britany’s house is 32 inches and the width is 18 inches, what is the length of her screen?

Luis goes to the grocery store and buys: 2 kg of sugar that costs CRC 825 per kg, a little bag of rice for CRC 5800, 1 kg of coffee at CRC 3750, 1 kg of onion at CRC 500 per kilo, 30 eggs at CRC 100 each; (a) how much money did you spend? (b) if you have CRC 7500, do you have any money left?

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Perspective of teachers regarding the type of context they use when choosing or creating mathematical problems. Source: Own elaboration.

**Figure 2.**Perspective of teaches when proposing problems with historical and indigenous contexts. Source: Own elaboration.

**Figure 3.**Perspective of teachers regarding the use of various sources of information to propose contextualized mathematical problems. Source: Own elaboration.

**Figure 4.**Perspective of teachers regarding considering the reality of the student and their environment to propose problems in mathematics. Source: Own elaboration.

**Figure 5.**Perspective of teachers regarding the difficulties in designing contextualized mathematical problems. Source: Own elaboration.

**Figure 6.**Percentage distribution of the type of context present in the problems provided by the teachers. Source: Own elaboration.

Gender | Experience | Academic Degrees | Work Area | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Male | Female | Less than 10 Years | More than 10 Years | High School Degree | College Degree or Master | Rural | Urban | |

Percentage | 40 | 60 | 43 | 57 | 36 | 64 | 51 | 49 |

Absolutes | 27 | 40 | 29 | 38 | 24 | 43 | 34 | 33 |

**Table 2.**Statistical measures on the opinions of teachers regarding the type of problem they create in mathematics.

Type of Problem | Selection | Creation | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean | Standard Deviation | Mode | Mean | Standard Deviation | Mode | |

Completely mathematical | 2.65 | 1.06 | 2 | 2.83 | 1.16 | 3 |

With fictional context | 2.37 | 1.08 | 2 | 2.69 | 1.17 | 3 |

With realistic context | 3.78 | 0.83 | 4 | 3.80 | 0.95 | 3 |

With applications | 3.70 | 0.83 | 4 | 3.67 | 1.02 | 3 |

**Table 3.**Statistical measures on the opinions of teachers regarding the use of resources for the creation of contextualized mathematical problems.

Resources | Mean | Standard Deviation | Mode |
---|---|---|---|

Textbooks | 3.49 | 1.07 | 3 |

Websites | 3.10 | 1.15 | 4 |

Specific indications of the MEP | 3.01 | 1.12 | 3 |

Department coordination or consultancies | 2.27 | 1.30 | 1 |

Own creation | 3.21 | 1.05 | 3 |

**Table 4.**Statistical measures on the opinion of teachers regarding considering the reality of the student and their environment to propose problems in mathematics.

Resources | Mean | Standard Deviation | Mode |
---|---|---|---|

To propose a problem in mathematics, I first inquire into the student’s fenced reality | 3.37 | 1.17 | 3 |

When I propose a math problem, I consider the preferences and interests of the student | 3.14 | 1.15 | 3 |

When I propose a math problem, I consider people close to the institution as sources of information | 3.05 | 1.23 | 3 |

**Table 5.**Statistical measures on the opinion regarding the difficulties in designing contextualized mathematical problems.

Affirmation | Mean | Standard Deviation | Mode |
---|---|---|---|

I have little knowledge of the reality where I work, which allows me to make contextualized problems | 2.58 | 1.21 | 2 |

The design of a contextualized problem takes me a lot of time | 3.65 | 1.04 | 3 |

I consider that there are few real situations that make it possible to create problems related to the contents of the school curriculum | 2.65 | 1.02 | 3 |

I find it difficult to create problems that can be modeled mathematically | 2.79 | 1.05 | 3 |

I have difficulty creating problems related to the reality of students | 2.71 | 1.19 | 3 |

I need to receive training to create mathematical problems contextualized to the reality of the student | 4.13 | 1.03 | 5 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chavarría-Arroyo, G.; Albanese, V.
Contextualized Mathematical Problems: Perspective of Teachers about Problem Posing. *Educ. Sci.* **2023**, *13*, 6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010006

**AMA Style**

Chavarría-Arroyo G, Albanese V.
Contextualized Mathematical Problems: Perspective of Teachers about Problem Posing. *Education Sciences*. 2023; 13(1):6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010006

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chavarría-Arroyo, Gilberto, and Veronica Albanese.
2023. "Contextualized Mathematical Problems: Perspective of Teachers about Problem Posing" *Education Sciences* 13, no. 1: 6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010006