# Temperature Measurement—Inquiry-Based Learning Activities for Third Graders

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. The Problem of Research

#### 2.2. Methodology of Research

**Hypothesis 1**

**(H1).**

#### 2.3. Sample of Research

#### 2.4. Instrument and Procedures

#### 2.4.1. Inquiry-Based Learning Activities of the Project Titled “Temperature Measurement” (Project Assignment for EG)

**Task 1.**Body temperature

**Task 2.**Objects with different temperatures

**Task 3.**Home-made thermometer

**Task 4.**Heating of ice-cold water

**Task 5.**Experiment with interactive simulation titled “Energy Forms and Transformations”.

**Task 6.**Different thermometers.

**Task 7.**Outdoor temperature.

**Task 8.**Weather pictograms.

**Task 9.**Monitoring of the actual weather conditions in a place where you live via internet.

**Task 10:**Monitoring of the actual temperature in a remote laboratory.

**Task 11.**Based on the acquired information in the preceding tasks, prepare a project titled “Temperature Measurement”.

#### 2.4.2. Learning Activities of the Topic “Temperature Measurement” for CG

**Task 1.**Recognition of water temperature by touch

**Task 2.**Recognition of thermometers.

**Task 3.**Construction of a simple thermometer.

**Task 4.**Temperature measurement using laboratory thermometer.

**Task 5.**Body temperature measurement with medical thermometer.

**Task 6.**Measurement of air temperature in classroom.

**Task 7.**Outdoor temperature measurement at school premises.

#### 2.5. Data Analysis

## 3. Results of Research

#### 3.1. Fisher—Snedecor’s F-Test for Pre-Test

_{0.05}(29; 28) is 1.88 and the calculated value of F is 1.08. The calculated F value is lower than the critical value and, furthermore, p > 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis must be adapted. As such, we can conclude that there were no statistically significant differences in the variance in both groups and the application of Student’s t-test with equal variances is therefore justified.

#### 3.2. Student’s t-Test for Pre-Test

_{0.05}(58) = 2.00. For the values shown in Table 4, t is equal to −0.54. Since the calculated t value is smaller than the critical value and, at the same time, p > 0.05, we must adopt a null hypothesis. Therefore, we conclude that there were no statistically significant differences between the pre-test scores of the EG and CG.

#### 3.3. Fisher—Snedecor’s F-Test for Post-Test

_{0.05}(29; 28) = 1.86 and the calculated value F = 1.08. We found that the calculated F value was lower than the critical value and p > 0.05. As such, we adopted the null hypothesis, i.e., there were no statistically significant differences in the variance in both groups, and the application of Student’s t-test with equal variances is therefore justified.

#### 3.4. Student’s t-Test for Post-Test

_{0.05}(58) = 2.00 For the values listed in Table 6, t equals 2.15. As the calculated t value is higher than the critical value and p < 0.05, we must reject the null hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis is therefore valid, which means that between the post-test results of the EG and the CG, there was a statistically significant difference.

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

Question no. | Definition |
---|---|

1 | Fill in the correct word in the next sentence. A thermometer is used to measure……………………………… (a) heat (b) temperature |

2 | Write two types of thermometers you know. ……………………………. …………………………… |

3 | Circle the correct answer. A dimension of temperature is: (a) kilogram (b) degree Celsius (c) meter (d) liter |

4 | Write down the value of a person’s normal body temperature. …….. °C. |

5 | Fill in the correct word, either heat or temperature. A hot soup has a high ................................. From sun to frozen river a ................................... can be transported If it is cold outside, the thermometer shows a low ………… |

6 | Answer the following questions: What happens to liquid water if we place it in a freezer? ……………… What happens to an ice cube if it is placed in a cup of hot tea? ……… |

7 | What happens to liquid water when it boils? Mark the correct answer. (a) bubbles (b) changes color (c) nothing |

8 | Circle the correct answer: When water boils it changes to (a) an ice (b) a steam |

9 | Imagine that we make the following experiment: 1. We fill a transparent bowl with warm water. 2. We place a cold lid on the bowl. Write down what you would observe on the underside of the lid. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… |

10 | Of the following values, the air has the lowest temperature when the thermometer shows: (a) −3 °C (b) 0 °C (c) −15 °C |

11 | Arrange the following temperature values from highest to lowest. (a) 8 °C (b) −12 °C (c) 24 °C (d) −3 °C |

12 | Assign the correct characteristics of year seasons A–fruits are harvested, leaves fall off B–snow melts, trees are green C–flowers blossom, air is very hot D–water freezes, daylight is short spring: …………………………………………………… summer: ………………………………............................. autumn: ………………………………………………… winter: ………………………………………………… |

13 | Assign the correct temperature to each season. (a) 5 °C (b) −15 °C (c) 35 °C (d) 25 °C spring…………summer………autumn……………winter……….. |

14 | Circle hot objects on the following list: (a) Ice cream (b) Burning candle (c) Ice cube (d) Boiling water |

15 | Write down the typical temperature of the following objects |

Question no. | Definition |
---|---|

1 | Name 4 types of thermometers that you know. …………………………….. ……………………………….. …………………………….. ……………………………….. |

2 | What temperature value would a medical thermometer show if you had a fever? Underline the correct answer from the options provided. (a) 36 °C (b) 39 °C (c) 37 °C |

3 | Indicate an elevated human body temperature on the following picture |

4 | Fill in the correct answer: (a) the boiling point of water is ………………°C. (b) the melting point of ice is …………………°C. |

5 | Mark the measured temperature value on the scale of each thermometer. |

6 | What can be a temperature of a snow flake? Mark all alternatives: (a) −5 °C (b) 13 °C (c) −3 °C (d) 20 °C |

7 | If we mix boiling water with iced water the resulting water temperature can be: (a) 0 °C, (b) 20 °C, (c) 100 °C, (d) smaller than 100 °C, (e) higher than 0 °C Mark all possible answers. |

8 | Underline the correct answer: We measure the body temperature body using: (a) room thermometer, (b) medical thermometer, (c) bimetallic thermometer, (d) any thermometer, that is not damaged. |

9 | Write down the temperature measured by each thermometer. |

10 | Explain why an outdoor temperature cannot be measured by medical thermometer. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… |

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**Figure 2.**Feverish woman [64].

**Figure 5.**Iced water in a glass [70].

**Figure 6.**Interactive simulation of boiling process [71].

**Figure 11.**Schematic of weather symbols [81].

**Figure 13.**Graphical representation of the pre-test score count distribution in the CG (

**a**) and EG (

**b**).

Statistical Variables | Pre-Test | |
---|---|---|

EG | CG | |

Mean | 17.63 | 18.67 |

Error of the Mean | 1.36 | 1.34 |

Median | 19 | 20 |

Modus | 20 | 27 |

Stand. Deviation | 7.46 | 7.32 |

Sample Variance | 55.62 | 53.61 |

Kurtosis | −0.82 | −1.08 |

Skewness | −0.18 | −0.17 |

Difference max.-min. | 26 | 24 |

Minimum | 4 | 6 |

Maximum | 30 | 30 |

Sum | 529 | 560 |

Count | 30 | 30 |

Highest score | 30 | 30 |

Lowest score | 4 | 6 |

Confidence Level (95.0%) | 2.78 | 2.73 |

Statistical Variables | Post-Test | |
---|---|---|

EG | CG | |

Mean | 20.17 | 16.27 |

Error of the Mean | 1.30 | 1.26 |

Median | 22 | 16 |

Modus | 23 | 20 |

Stand. Deviation | 7.14 | 6.89 |

Sample Variance | 51.04 | 47.44 |

Kurtosis | −0.87 | −1.18 |

Skewness | −0.38 | −0.14 |

Difference max.-min. | 24 | 23 |

Minimum | 6 | 5 |

Maximum | 30 | 28 |

Sum | 605 | 488 |

Count | 30 | 30 |

Highest score | 30 | 28 |

Lowest score | 6 | 5 |

Confidence Level (95.0%) | 2.67 | 2.57 |

Pre-Test | ||
---|---|---|

Statistical Variables | EG | CG |

Mean | 17.63 | 18.31 |

Variance | 55.62 | 51.58 |

Observation | 30 | 29 |

Difference | 29 | 28 |

F | 1.08 | |

P(F ≤ f) (1) | 0.42 | |

F crit. (1) | 1.88 |

Statistical Variables | Pre-Test | |
---|---|---|

EG | CG | |

Mean | 17.63 | 18.67 |

Variance | 55.62 | 53.61 |

Observation | 30 | 30 |

Common Variance | 54.61 | |

Hyp. difference of Means | 0 | |

Difference | 58 | |

t stat | −0.54 | |

P(T ≤ t) (1) | 0.30 | |

t crit (1) | 1.67 | |

P(T ≤ t) (2) | 0.59 | |

t crit (2) | 2.00 |

Post-Test | ||
---|---|---|

Statistical Variables | EG | CG |

Mean | 20.17 | 16.27 |

Variance | 51.04 | 47.44 |

Observation | 30 | 30 |

Difference | 29 | 29 |

F | 1.08 | |

P(F ≤ f) (1) | 0.42 | |

F crit. (1) | 1.86 |

Statistical Variables | Post-Test | |
---|---|---|

EG | CG | |

Mean | 20.17 | 16.27 |

Variance | 51.04 | 47.44 |

Observation | 30 | 30 |

Common Variance | 49.24 | |

Hyp. difference of Means | 0 | |

Difference | 58 | |

t stat | 2.15 | |

P(T ≤ t) (1) | 0.02 | |

t crit (1) | 1.67 | |

P(T ≤ t) (2) | 0.036 | |

t crit (2) | 2.00 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gerhátová, Ž.; Perichta, P.; Drienovský, M.; Palcut, M.
Temperature Measurement—Inquiry-Based Learning Activities for Third Graders. *Educ. Sci.* **2021**, *11*, 506.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090506

**AMA Style**

Gerhátová Ž, Perichta P, Drienovský M, Palcut M.
Temperature Measurement—Inquiry-Based Learning Activities for Third Graders. *Education Sciences*. 2021; 11(9):506.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090506

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gerhátová, Žaneta, Peter Perichta, Marián Drienovský, and Marián Palcut.
2021. "Temperature Measurement—Inquiry-Based Learning Activities for Third Graders" *Education Sciences* 11, no. 9: 506.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090506