# Implementing Government Elementary Math Exercises Online: Positive Effects Found in RCT under Social Turmoil in Chile

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methods

#### 2.1. Sample and Implementation

- Students who qualified for special education services but attended mainstream mathematics classes were included.
- Random assignment to treatment and control.
- Control groups used an alternative program already in place, or “business-as-usual”.
- The treatment program was delivered by ordinary teachers, not by the program developers, researchers, or their graduate students.
- Pretest differences between experimental and control groups were less than 25% of a standard deviation. Indeed, the difference was just 4% of a standard deviation.
- Differential attrition between experimental and control groups from pre-post-test was 10%, which is less than the limit of 15% suggested [3].
- Assessments were not made by developers of the program or researchers. They were designed and administered by a regular provider of the Ministry of Education, with the most experience in the country, and who also is a provider of tests of the UNESCO ERCE 2019 [28] test for Latin America.
- The study had more than two teachers and 30 students in each condition. Indeed, there were 18 teachers in the Treatment Group, another 18 teachers in the Control Group, and a total of 1197 students.
- The study had more than 12 weeks of duration.
- Additionally, the intervention in the treatment group was in regular class hours, not in extra supplementary time.

#### 2.2. Analysis

## 3. Results

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Group | N | Pretest Mean | SD | t | df | p-Value |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Treatment | 659 | 560.55 | 43.59 | 0.783 | 1195 | 0.433 |

Control | 538 | 558.59 | 42.84 | |||

Total | 1197 | 559.67 | 43.25 |

Treatment Group | Control Group | Total | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Measure | n | % Missing | n | % Missing | n | % Missing |

SEPA-Post | 659 | 15% | 538 | 25% | 1197 | 20% |

**Table 3.**Comparison between values of responders (not missing) and non-responders (missing) on the SEPA post-test.

Measure | Not Missing | Missing | p | |
---|---|---|---|---|

SEPA Math Pre | Mean (SD) | 561.4 (43.5) | 552.6 (41.7) | 0.005 |

Group | Control | 401 (41.8) | 137 (57.6) | <0.001 |

Treatment | 558 (58.2) | 101 (42.4) | ||

Sex | Female | 495 (51.6) | 116 (48.7) | 0.47 |

Male | 464 (48.4) | 122 (51.3) | ||

GPA | Mean (SD) | 5.9 (0.5) | 5.8 (0.7) | 0.002 |

Attendance | Mean (SD) | 90.7 (7.2) | 84.1 (12.1) | <0.001 |

Completed Exercises | Mean (SD) | 215.6 (279.5) | 144.8 (230.5) | <0.001 |

Answer Length | Mean (SD) | 7.6 (10.0) | 5.4 (11.2) | 0.003 |

Measure | ||
---|---|---|

SEPA Math Pre | Mean (SD) | 559.67 (43.3) |

Group | Control | 538 |

Treatment | 659 | |

Sex | Female | 611 |

Male | 586 | |

GPA | Mean (SD) | 5.87 (0.6) |

Attendance | Mean (SD) | 89.42 (8.8) |

Number Exercises | Mean (SD) | 201.52 (271.8) |

Answer Length | Mean (SD) | 7.19 (10.26) |

Estimate | Std. Error | t | p | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Intercept | 210.055 | 16.842 | 12.472 | 0.000 |

SEPA-Math PRE | 0.534 | 0.032 | 16.491 | 0.000 |

Group: Treatment | 5.615 | 3.470 | 4.618 | 0.019 |

Sex: Male | 2.689 | 2.005 | 1.341 | 0.182 |

GPA | 14.864 | 3.856 | 3.855 | 0.000 |

Attendance | −0.405 | 0.131 | −3.099 | 0.002 |

Estimate | Std. Error | t | p | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Intercept | 214.632 | 17.211 | 12.471 | 0.000 |

SEPA-Math PRE | 0.531 | 0.033 | 15.99 | 0.000 |

Answer Length | 0.225 | 0.109 | 2.053 | 0.041 |

Sex: Male | 2.864 | 2.037 | 1.406 | 0.161 |

GPA | 14.661 | 3.850 | 3.808 | 0.001 |

Attendance | −0.406 | 0.131 | −3.101 | 0.002 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Araya, R.; Diaz, K.
Implementing Government Elementary Math Exercises Online: Positive Effects Found in RCT under Social Turmoil in Chile. *Educ. Sci.* **2020**, *10*, 244.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090244

**AMA Style**

Araya R, Diaz K.
Implementing Government Elementary Math Exercises Online: Positive Effects Found in RCT under Social Turmoil in Chile. *Education Sciences*. 2020; 10(9):244.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090244

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Araya, Roberto, and Karina Diaz.
2020. "Implementing Government Elementary Math Exercises Online: Positive Effects Found in RCT under Social Turmoil in Chile" *Education Sciences* 10, no. 9: 244.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090244