- Explore the obstacles faced by Arab university professors and students in achieving quality in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, and understand how these obstacles can be limited from their point of view.
- Classification and arrangement of these obstacles.
- Determining the differences in the identified obstacles to achieving quality in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic between teachers and students.
- Presenting some suggestions to overcome these obstacles.
1.2. The Major Questions of This Study
- What are the obstacles to achieving quality in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic from the viewpoint of university professors and their students?
- In their view, what is the arrangement of these obstacles?
- Do the obstacles mentioned to achieving quality in distance learning in light of the COVID-19 pandemic differ between teachers and students?
1.3. Importance of This Study
1.4. The Limitation of the Study
- Regions: The study included Algerian, Egyptian, Palestinian, and Iraqi universities.
- Period: The study was conducted during April and May 2020.
- Samples: The study included university professors and students.
2. Theoretical Framework and Exploratory Procedures
2.1. Distance Learning
2.1.1. The Concept of Distance Learning
2.1.2. The Distance Learning System
2.1.3. Characteristics of the Distance Learning System
2.2. Corona Virus Pandemic
2.2.2. Corona Disease (Covid-19)
2.3. Research Approach
2.4. Study Tool
3. Data Collections and Results
3.1. Obstacles Category
3.2. Obstacles Arrangement (Ordering)
4.1. Personal Obstacles (Self-Imposed Obstacles)
4.2. Pedagogical Obstacles
4.3. Technical Obstacles
4.4. Financial and Organizational Obstacles
4.5. Obstacles Comparisons
- Providing better university infrastructure, by providing computer labs in colleges, and hiring technical supervisors who instruct professors and students on the optimal use of technology, the internet, and various e-learning applications.
- Preparing electronic courses with a high level of quality, and placing them on university websites for public benefit.
- Providing continuous training and education opportunities for faculty members in the field of distance education and its requirements, and the new roles that professors and students should take.
- Diversify distance learning activities to stimulate student motivation and motivate them for self-learning.
- Coordination of Arab efforts in the field of developing distance education, especially concerning electronic university curricula and remote testing, while respecting overall quality standards.
- Providing internet access for all students in rural and remote areas.
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|Targeted Groups||Total Number||Percentage (%)|
|Obstacles Category (Groups)||Obstacles||Professors|
(n = 100)
(n = 300)
(n = 400)
|Personal obstacles (self-imposed obstacles)||1-The weak motivation of students to distance learning.||65||112||177||44.3|
|2-The difficulty of students’ understanding of some subjects in the absence of classroom interaction.||60||175||235||58.8|
|3-Get used to face-to-face learning.||61||95||156||39|
|4-Some professors are not convinced of the usefulness of distance learning.||20||39||59||14.8|
|5-Lack of willingness to implement the distance learning system.||69||105||174||43.5|
|Pedagogical obstacles||1-Difficulty learning some applied courses and remotely oriented work.||18||47||65||16.3|
|2-The lack of clarity of the methods of remote evaluation.||47||48||95||23.8|
|3-Lack of preparing the university community (administration, professors, etc.) to deal with distance learning.||64||0||64||16|
|Technical obstacles||1-Weak internet flow (speed).||80||156||236||59|
|2-Security and confidentiality of data and information.||66||63||129||32.3|
|Financial and organizational obstacles||1-The lack of capabilities to communicate remotely (devices, internet, Apps, etc.).||82||155||237||59.3|
|2-Lack of training in the use of technology.||71||69||140||35|
|3-Multiple electronic media and the absence of uniform controls between all.||52||42||94||23.5|
|4-The home environment is not suitable for distance learning.||46||60||106||26.5|
|Type of Obstacles||Overall Percentage and Arrangement||Breakdown Percentage and Arrangement|
(n = 400)
(n = 100)
(n = 300)
|The lack of capabilities to communicate remotely (devices, internet, Apps, etc.).||56.3||1||82||1||51.7||3|
|Weak internet flow (speed).||59||2||80||2||52||2|
|The difficulty of students’ understanding of some subjects in the absence of classroom interaction.||58.8||3||60||9||58.3||1|
|The weak motivation of students for distance learning.||44.3||4||65||6||37.3||4|
|Lack of willingness to implement the distance learning system.||43.5||5||69||4||35||5|
|Get used to face-to-face learning.||39||6||61||8||31.7||6|
|Lack of training in the use of technology.||35||7||71||3||23||7|
|Security and confidentiality of data and information||32.3||8||66||5||21||8|
|The home environment is not suitable for distance learning.||26.5||9||46||12||20||9|
|The lack of clarity of the methods of remote evaluation.||23.8||10||47||11||16||10|
|Multiple electronic media and the absence of uniform controls between all.||23.5||11||52||10||14||12|
|Difficulty learning some applied courses and remotely oriented work.||16.3||12||18||14||15.7||11|
|Lack of preparing the university community (administration, professors, etc.) to deal with distance learning.||16||13||64||7||0||14|
|Some professors are not convinced of the usefulness of distance learning.||14.8||14||20||13||13||13|
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