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The Role of Hospital and Community Pharmacists in the Management of COVID-19: Towards an Expanded Definition of the Roles, Responsibilities, and Duties of the Pharmacist

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Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Postgraduate School of Public Health, Genoa University, 16132 Genoa, Italy
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Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
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Department of Surgery A, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Faculty of Medicine of the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed 5290002, Israel
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Division of General Surgery, St. Michael’s Hospital, Unity Health Toronto, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada
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Section of Legal and Forensic Medicine, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
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Section of History of Medicine and Bioethics, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030140
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 5 August 2020 / Accepted: 6 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
Since late December 2019, a novel, emerging coronavirus was identified as the infectious agent responsible for a generally mild but sometimes severe and even life-threatening disease, termed as “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). The pathogen was initially named as “2019 novel coronavirus” (2019-nCoV) and later renamed as “Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus type 2” (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 quickly spread from the first epicenter, the city of Wuhan, province of Hubei, mainland China, into neighboring countries, and became a global pandemic. As of July 15th 2020, the outbreak is still ongoing, with SARS-CoV-2 affecting 213 countries and territories. The coronavirus has caused a dramatic toll of deaths and imposed a severe burden, both from a societal and economic point of view. COVID-19 has challenged health systems, straining and overwhelming healthcare facilities and settings, including hospital and community pharmacies. On the other hand, COVID-19 has propelled several changes. During the last decades, pharmacy has shifted from being products-based and patient-facing to being services-based and patient-centered. Pharmacies have transitioned from being compounding centers devoted to the manipulation of materia medica to pharmaceutical centers, clinical pharmacies and fully integrated “medical-pharmaceutical networks”, providing a significant range of non-prescribing services. Moreover, roles, duties and responsibilities of pharmacists have paralleled such historical changes and have known a gradual expansion, incorporating new skills and reflecting new societal demands and challenges. The COVID-19 outbreak has unearthed new opportunities for pharmacists: community and hospital pharmacists have, indeed, played a key role during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting that a fully integrated, inter-sectoral and inter-professional collaboration is necessary to face crises and public health emergencies. Preliminary, emerging evidence seems to suggest that, probably, a new era in the history of pharmacies (“the post-COVID-19 post-pharmaceutical care era”) has begun, with community pharmacists acquiring more professional standing, being authentic heroes and frontline health workers. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; viral outbreak; community and hospital pharmacists; history of pharmacies and pharmacists COVID-19; viral outbreak; community and hospital pharmacists; history of pharmacies and pharmacists
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bragazzi, N.L.; Mansour, M.; Bonsignore, A.; Ciliberti, R. The Role of Hospital and Community Pharmacists in the Management of COVID-19: Towards an Expanded Definition of the Roles, Responsibilities, and Duties of the Pharmacist. Pharmacy 2020, 8, 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030140

AMA Style

Bragazzi NL, Mansour M, Bonsignore A, Ciliberti R. The Role of Hospital and Community Pharmacists in the Management of COVID-19: Towards an Expanded Definition of the Roles, Responsibilities, and Duties of the Pharmacist. Pharmacy. 2020; 8(3):140. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bragazzi, Nicola L.; Mansour, Muhammad; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Ciliberti, Rosagemma. 2020. "The Role of Hospital and Community Pharmacists in the Management of COVID-19: Towards an Expanded Definition of the Roles, Responsibilities, and Duties of the Pharmacist" Pharmacy 8, no. 3: 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030140

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