- freely available
Pharmacy 2019, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7010004
- practice: community, hospital and industrial;
- education and training;
3. Evaluation and Assessment
3.1. Organisation of the Activities of Pharmacists, Professional Bodies
3.2. Pharmacy Faculties, Students, and Courses
3.3. Teaching and Learning Methods
3.4. Subject Areas
- Practical skills in practical work in laboratories,
- Language as part of pharmaceutical chemistry and other subjects where the relevant literature is in English,
- Communication as a part of social pharmacy as well as a part of the many subjects where student oral presentations are obligatory,
- First aid and communication as parts of traineeship,
- Specific field legislation is part of several courses dealing with particular regulative acts.
3.5. Impact of the Bologna Principles 
- Common diploma in Postgraduate European Radiopharmacy Course. The postgraduate education for the title "Radiopharmaceutical Chemist/Radiopharmacist" consists of three modules in Ljubljana (Slovenia), Zurich (Switzerland) and Leipzig (Germany). The course contents follow the guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine .
- Summer school in Immunology in collaboration with the Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Switzerland.
- The non-clinical, pharmaceutical and early clinical development of Cooperative European Medicines Development Course (CEMDC) is an integral part of the Innovative medicines initiative (IMI) Pharmaceutical Medicine Training Programme .
3.6. Impact of European Union (EU) Directive 2013/55/EC 
- Regarding traineeship, some common skills can be taught at the HEI and not separately in each pharmacy.
- A university course besides providing competences for working as a pharmacist should also provide a wider education in terms of academic literacy, problem solving, etc.
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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- Srednja Šola za Farmacijo, Kozmetiko in Zdravstvo (Secondary School for Pharmacy, Cosmetics and Healthcare). Available online: www.ssfkz.si (accessed on 19 September 2018).
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|Life expectancy at birth (years)||81|
|Healthy life expectancy at birth (years)||71|
|Total health expenditure as % of GDP||8.7|
|Community pharmacists||1144||Data: 31 December 2016.|
1807 inhabitants per pharmacist; 3.4 pharmacists per pharmacy
|Community pharmacies||333||Data: 31 December 2016.|
6204 inhabitants per pharmacy. Branch pharmacies are included.
|Competences and roles of community pharmacists||According to EU directive:|
|Ownership of a pharmacy limited to pharmacists?||Yes in the case of natural persons||70% (233) community pharmacies (pharmacy branches included) are organized as 24 public institutes established by municipalities. |
Private ownership of community pharmacies is limited to pharmacists or to a legal entity in which a pharmacist, who is also the manager or a member of the management body, holds more than 50% of the capital.
|Are there rules governing the distribution of pharmacies?||Yes||The pharmacy network is defined on the basis of the following criteria:|
A pharmacy branch shall be established in areas in which the number of inhabitants in the catchment area of a pharmacy branch exceeds 2500 and primary-level healthcare services are already in place.
A stock of medicinal products may be set up by a pharmacy in a doctor’s clinic in an area at least 10 km from the nearest pharmacy or pharmacy branch. Reference .
|Healthcare products available by other channels||Yes||Specialized shops: some are registered for over-the-counter medicines (OTC), if not they may sell only healthcare products.|
Some pharmacies offer an E-pharmacy service for OTC only. Reference .
|Titles and number||523||Pharmacists’ assistants (pharmacy technicians). Data from 31 December 2016.|
There are 1.57 pharmacists’ assistants/pharmacy
|Organisation providing training||Secondary school for pharmacy, cosmetics and healthcare in Ljubljana and pharmacy programs at secondary schools in Ruše and Novo Mesto|
|Duration of studies||4 years secondary education + 6 months’ probation||The program for pharmacy technicians comprises 4 years of secondary education (at age 15–19 years), a final exam at the end of the secondary school and 6 months’ probation in a pharmacy|
|Competences and roles|
|Hospital pharmacists||124||They are organized as a section of the Slovenian chamber of pharmacy  |
Data from 31 December 2016.
|Hospital pharmacies||27||Data from 31 December 2016.|
4.6 pharmacists per hospital pharmacy.
|Competences and roles||In line with the system for the recognition of professional qualifications, EU directive 2005/36/EC . |
|Companies with production, R & D and distribution||2||Two companies have R & D, production and distribution:www.jazmp.si. Examples:|
|Companies with production only||10||Galenical laboratories|
|Companies with distribution and marketing only||99||99 companies are registered for the distribution of pharmaceutical and healthcare products, 3 of which are classical full-line distribution companies for pharmaceutical products. Examples: |
|Companies producing generic drugs only||3||Krka: www.krka.biz/en|
|Pharmacists working in industry||1100||660 pharmacists work in two main factories (Krka d.d. and LEK/Sandoz). Approximately 450 (data 2017) work in other pharmaceutical firms, mainly in pharmaco-informatics, trading and sales.|
A total of 8961 persons worked in the Slovenian pharmaceutical industry in 2017 .
|Competences and roles of industrial pharmacists||Depends on position and company:|
|Pharmacists working in other sectors||270|
|Competences||Depends on sector and position. Examples:|
|Registration of pharmacists||Yes||According to the Law on Pharmacies (ZLD-1)  the Slovene Chamber of Pharmacies shall perform the following tasks (amongst others):|
|Creation of pharmacies and control of territorial distribution||Yes||A new pharmacy or pharmacy branch is established after obtaining the (positive) opinion of the Slovene Chamber of Pharmacies  and the consent of the Ministry of Health|
|Ethical and other aspects of professional conduct||Yes||The codex of pharmaceutical ethics of the Slovenian Pharmaceutical Society is for members of the society only.|
The deontology codex in pharmacy from the Slovene chamber of pharmacies is for all pharmacists, working in pharmacy praxis.
The deontology codex in laboratory medicine from the Slovenian Chamber for Laboratory Medicine is for all who work in diagnostic laboratories, including pharmacists.
|Involvement in HEI courses for pharmacists||The Chamber together with the Faculty of Pharmacy organises and supervises the practical training of pharmacy students. The Chamber of Pharmacies obliges pharmacists to undergo regular continuous professional development and also organizes two-day educations for pharmacists every year.|
|Number of HEIs||1||University of Ljubljana (UL), Faculty of Pharmacy |
|Bachelor + master degrees B + M||No||Not in pharmacy where there is a fully integrated 5-year program.|
The faculty also teaches:
|Number of teaching staff (nationals)||82||Full time employment (FTE) at the faculty |
An additional workload (about 20 FTE) is provided by circa 100 teachers and assistants from other faculties (medicine, chemistry, mathematics and physics).
|EU teaching staff||3–8 per year||As guest teachers|
|Non-EU teaching staff||1–3 per year||As guest teachers|
|Number professionals (pharmacists and others) from outside the HEI||140||Experts from the pharmaceutical industry, community pharmacies, laboratory medicine, hospitals, Ministry of health, Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia, Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the Republic of Slovenia . |
They are involved as:
|Student places||2017: 150||Based on a yearly decision of the Ministry for higher education, science and technology (numerus clausus).|
|Applicants for entry||2017: 197||Full details of student numbers are available at:|
(https://www.uni-lj.si/studij/prijavno_sprejemni_postopki/ (enrolment procedures) and at
http://www.mizs.gov.si/fileadmin/mizs.gov.si/pageuploads/Visoko_solstvo/Statistika_in_analize/Analize_vpisa_arhiv/analiza_2017_2018.pdf (national analyses about matriculation 2017–2018)
|Graduates that become registered pharmacists||2016/17: 133||Since programme was harmonized with the EU directive (extendion to 5 years, including a 6-month practice period, terminating with a state examination and thesis defence) all graduates are registered by the Ministry of health at the national register of healthcare professionals.|
|EU international students||125||The lectures are given in Slovenian. Exchange students receive support material and individual mentoring by professors in English.|
In practical laboratory work most subjects have an English-speaking sub-group when necessary (enough foreign exchange students).
All written and oral instructions for foreign students are given in English. Written and oral examinations in English are provided for exchange students.
Exchange students are expected to have at least an intermediate level of English knowledge.
|Non-EU international students||20||The same items as is previous paragraph apply.|
|National entry requirements||Yes||General national secondary school examination. |
Graduates of some secondary technical schools (pharmacy, laboratory medicine, veterinary, cosmetics) may enter with an additional examination.
|Quality assurance and validation of HEI courses||Yes||As from 2017 National agency for quality assurance in high education NAKVIS handles institutional accreditation, the first university programme accreditation (for unlimited time) and all major program changes .|
The faculty of pharmacy collaborates with the main stakeholders: professional associations, alumni, chambers, drug producers or their associations e.g., Forum of international research & development pharmaceutical companies EIG and regulators (JAZMP)
|Fees per year||0||The costs are covered from the state budget for all EU citizens and students from non-EU countries which have bilateral agreement with Slovenia.|
The costs are financed by government as lump sum to University, not per student.
|Non-EU students||11,000 €/year|
|Major changes since 1999||Yes|
|Specialized courses?||Yes||Different types of specialized courses are available:|
|Which years?||Different||Depends on programme:|
|Which specialisations?||Postgraduate 3 or 4 years specialization training (for details, see ref ):|
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