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Levels of Reality

Department of Linguistics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Languages 2019, 4(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4020022
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HDLS 13: Challenges to Common Beliefs in Linguistic Research)
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Abstract

Two fundamental aspects of conceptual and linguistic structure are examined in relation to one another: organization into strata, each a baseline giving rise to the next by elaboration; and the conceptions of reality implicated at successive levels of English clause structure. A clause profiles an occurrence (event or state) and grounds it by assessing its epistemic status (location vis-à-vis reality). Three levels are distinguished in which different notions of reality correlate with particular structural features. In baseline clauses, grounded by “tense,” the profiled occurrence belongs to baseline reality (the established history of occurrences). Basic clauses incorporate perspective (passive, progressive, and perfect), and since grounding includes the grammaticized modals, as well as negation, basic reality is more elaborate. A basic clause expresses a proposition, comprising the grounded structure and the epistemic status specified by basic grounding. At higher strata, propositions are themselves subject to epistemic assessment, in which conceptualizers negotiate their validity; propositions accepted as valid constitute propositional reality. Propositions are assessed through interactive grounding, in the form of questioning and polarity focusing, and by complementation, in which the matrix clause indicates the status of the complement. View Full-Text
Keywords: complementation; disjunction; finite verb; focusing; grounding; modal; negation; negotiation; proposition; speech act complementation; disjunction; finite verb; focusing; grounding; modal; negation; negotiation; proposition; speech act
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Langacker, R.W. Levels of Reality. Languages 2019, 4, 22.

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