# Influence of Non-Uniform Bluntness on Aerodynamic Performance and Aerothermal Characteristics of Waverider

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Model Introduction

## 3. Numerical Method Validation and Grid Convergence Tests

^{−5}(where L is the length of the straight biconic model).

^{−2}mm), the maximum heat flow does not converge. With the densification of the near-wall size (less than or equal to D/2 × 10

^{−3}mm) and the densification of the object surface grid, the numerical deviation of the maximum heat flow did not exceed 4.2%. It can be considered that the numerical results have high reliability. The following numerical calculations were based on the fourth set (D × 10

^{−5}mm) of grid parameters.

## 4. Aerothermal Characteristics and Aerodynamic Performance of Blunt Waverider

#### 4.1. Flow-Field Comparison

#### 4.2. Effects of Angle of Attack

_{0}is the peak heat flux (4,174,820 W/m

^{2}) of the circular blunt profile. Considering that the heat flux distribution curves of the circular blunt deviated as a whole with the increase of the attack angle, and the peak heat flow remained unchanged, therefore, the heat flux distribution at the 0-degree attack angle was selected for analysis. D4-0° indicates that the diameter of the circular blunt profile was 4 mm, and the angle of attack was 0 degrees. H4-0° indicates that the height of the non-uniform blunt profile was 4 mm and the angle of attack was 0 degrees.

^{2}) of the circular blunt waverider. Considering that the spanwise distribution of the circular waverider including the peak heat flux was the same under different attack angles, the blunt waverider with a diameter of 4 mm under the 0° attack angle was selected for analysis. D4-0° indicates that the diameter of the circular blunt profile was 4 mm, and the angle of attack was 0 degrees. H4-0° indicates that the height of the non-uniform blunt profile was 4 mm and the angle of attack was 0 degrees.

#### 4.3. Effects of Flight Altitudes

#### 4.4. Effects of Mach Numbers

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Heat flow distribution of circular and non-uniform leading edge [27].

**Figure 2.**Pressure distribution of circular and optimal leading edge [27].

**Figure 6.**Straight biconic model (units: mm) [28].

**Figure 9.**Pressure contour under the symmetry plane of the waverider (diameter/height: 20 mm, units: Pa).

**Figure 11.**Heat flux distribution of two blunt profiles (diameter/height: 4 mm, angle of attack: 0 degrees, units: w/m

^{2}).

**Figure 15.**Aerodynamic performance force of the two blunt profiles’ thickness (angle of attack: 2 degrees).

**Figure 16.**Aerodynamic performance of different blunt profiles with angle of attack (diameter/height: 20 mm).

**Figure 18.**Aerodynamic performance of different blunt profiles with various flight altitudes (diameter/height: 20 mm).

**Figure 19.**Aerodynamic performance of different blunt profiles with various Mach numbers (diameter/height: 20 mm).

Type | Value | Blunt Diameter/Height |
---|---|---|

Angle of attack (degrees) | 0 (base), 5, 10, 15, 20 | 4, 10, 20 |

Flight altitude (km) | 15, 20, 25 (base), 30, 35 | |

Mach number | 2, 4, 6 (base), 8, 10 |

Number | Near-Wall Size/mm | Qmax/(W/m^{2}) | Grid Numbers |
---|---|---|---|

1 | D/2 × 10^{−2} | 3.57 × 10^{6} | 1.88 × 10^{6} |

2 | D/2 × 10^{−3} | 3.97 × 10^{6} | 1.88 × 10^{6} |

3 | D/2 × 10^{−4} | 4.04 × 10^{6} | 1.88 × 10^{6} |

4 | D × 10^{−5} | 4.15 × 10^{6} | 1.88 × 10^{6} |

5 | D × 10^{−5} | 4.12 × 10^{6} | 3.35 × 10^{6} |

Diameter/Height | Blunt Profile | Mach Numbers | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2 | 4 | 6 | 8 | 10 | ||

4 mm | Circular | 0.83 × 10^{+5} | 1.08 × 10^{+6} | 4.17 × 10^{+6} | 1.03 × 10^{+7} | 2.06 × 10^{+7} |

Non-uniform | 0.70 × 10^{+5} | 0.89 × 10^{+6} | 3.49 × 10^{+6} | 0.87 × 10^{+7} | 1.74 × 10^{+7} | |

Reduced by | +16% | +18% | +17% | +16% | +16% | |

10 mm | Circular | 0.52 × 10^{+5} | 0.71 × 10^{+6} | 2.71 × 10^{+6} | 0.69 × 10^{+7} | 1.36 × 10^{+7} |

Non-uniform | 0.43 × 10^{+5} | 0.59 × 10^{+6} | 2.29 × 10^{+6} | 0.57 × 10^{+7} | 1.13 × 10^{+7} | |

Reduced by | +17% | +17% | +16% | +17% | +17% | |

20 mm | Circular | 0.37 × 10^{+5} | 0.52 × 10^{+6} | 2.02 × 10^{+6} | 0.50 × 10^{+7} | 1.01 × 10^{+7} |

Non-uniform | 0.31 × 10^{+5} | 0.43 × 10^{+6} | 1.72 × 10^{+6} | 0.42 × 10^{+7} | 0.84 × 10^{+7} | |

Reduced by | +16% | +16% | +15% | +16% | +17% |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Qu, Z.; Wang, W.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y.; Li, G.; Cui, K.
Influence of Non-Uniform Bluntness on Aerodynamic Performance and Aerothermal Characteristics of Waverider. *Aerospace* **2023**, *10*, 205.
https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10030205

**AMA Style**

Qu Z, Wang W, Xiao H, Xiao Y, Li G, Cui K.
Influence of Non-Uniform Bluntness on Aerodynamic Performance and Aerothermal Characteristics of Waverider. *Aerospace*. 2023; 10(3):205.
https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10030205

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Qu, Zhipeng, Wanyu Wang, Houdi Xiao, Yao Xiao, Guangli Li, and Kai Cui.
2023. "Influence of Non-Uniform Bluntness on Aerodynamic Performance and Aerothermal Characteristics of Waverider" *Aerospace* 10, no. 3: 205.
https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10030205