The weather and climate conditions contributing to the energy and water availability during the sugar beet vegetation period within the Belgorod Region were studied. It was found that the sugar beet yield in the region currently depends on the climate at the 15% level. The variability and trends of sugar beet yields and sugar content dynamics correlated with that of the observed during a 60-year period are determined using statistical techniques such as correlation, and regression and time series analysis. The variation for the sugar content (or “sugariness”) over this period as related to the regional weather and climate showed a nonlinear relationship. The sugar content is related inversely to the combined (via the Hydrothermal Coefficient—HTC) influence of precipitation and temperature during the warm season (temperatures between 15 and 20 °C). A decrease (increase) in HTC contributes to an increase (decrease) in the beet sugar content. However, it was noted that during sugar content increases, there is a decrease in the regional sugar beet yield. We can conclude that the increased sugar content of beet in relevant years compensates for the decrease in the yield parameter. Finally, there was a correlation between the regional variability in the sugar content of beets with Bruckner solar cycles and atmospheric teleconnections in that during warm and dry periods, the sugar content increases, and for cold and wet periods is reduced.
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