The Moist Adiabat, Key of the Climate Response to Anthropogenic Forcing
1.1. State of the Art
1.2. The Response of the Climate System
3.1. Representation of the Surface Air Temperature (SAT) Anomalies
3.2. Representation of the Precipitations
3.2.1. Regions Subject to Rainfall Oscillation
3.2.2. Regions Subject to Seasonal Rainfall
3.2.3. Complementarity of the Two Cycles
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Evolution of the Moist Adiabat
4.2. Latitudinal Variations of SAT
4.3. Longitudinal Variations of SAT
4.4. Anthropogenic Forcing Efficiency
4.4.1. Seasonal Low-Pressure Systems
- The low SAT of regions most impacted by polar vortices are subject to a very high sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing > 2.0 °C/50 years from Figure 1 ( is increase in SAT resulting from the anthropogenic forcing).
- Large landmasses in temperate latitudes are significantly affected by anthropogenic forcing 1.1 °C/50 years < < 2.0 °C/50 years.
- The impact of anthropogenic forcing in the monsoon trough or the intertropical convergence zone is low within the tropical belt but increases significantly as the latitude increases as occurs in South America and central Africa, up to 35° S. It is −0.5 °C/50 years < < 0.8 °C/50 years within the tropical belt and 0.8 °C/50 years < < 1.5 °C/50 years at higher latitudes.
- Regions concerned by thermal lows are heavily impacted by anthropogenic forcing because in such dry regions the convective condensation level is elevated several kilometers so that the difference between SAT and may reach up to 35 °C. Consequently 1.1 °C/50 years < < 2.0 °C/50 years.
- Regions impacted by tropical cyclones are also affected by monsoon troughing so that the anthropogenic impact is the same in both cases −0.5 °C/50 years < < 0.8 °C/50 years within the tropical belt.
4.4.2. Subtropical Depressions and Extratropical Cyclones
4.4.3. The Case of the Antarctic
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Radiative Forcing Efficiency
Appendix B. The Differential Fluxes Resulting from the SAT Anomaly
|SAT °C||ΔT °C|
Appendix C. The Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate Versus Temperature
- wet adiabatic lapse rate, K/mEarth’s gravitational acceleration = 9.8076 m/s2heat of vaporization of water = 2501000 J/kgspecific gas constant of dry air = 287 J/kg·Kspecific gas constant of water vapor = 461.5 J/kg·Kthe dimensionless ratio of the specific gas constant of dry air to the specific gas constant for water vapor = 0.622the water vapor pressure of the saturated air
- ; is the temperature of the saturated air in °Cthe mixing ratio of the mass of water vapor to the mass of dry air the pressure of the saturated airtemperature of the saturated air, Kthe specific heat of dry air at constant pressure, = 1003.5 J/kg·K
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|Location of RRH Anomalies||Location of Related SST Anomalies|
|Southwestern North America||eastern antinode of the North Pacific extending along the western coast of the North America between 40° N and 60° N|
|Texas||along the subtropical gyre from the Baja California peninsula between 20° N and 30° N|
|Southeastern North America, Northeastern North America, southern tip of Greenland, Europe and Western-Central Asia||western antinode of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre that follows the North American coast from the Cape Hatteras to Newfoundland around 40° N. About the southeastern North America, the SST anomaly promotes the motion of tropical cyclones from the Gulf of Mexico or the Caribbean Sea.|
|Region of the Rio de la Plata||western antinode of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre nearly 30° S|
|South-Western and South-Eastern Australia||between 90° E and the western coast of Australia, and between 20° S and 40° S in latitude|
|Southeast Asia||Like what occurs in southeastern North America, here northeastward migration of tropical cyclones is related to SST anomalies in the Northwestern Pacific|
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Pinault, J.-L. The Moist Adiabat, Key of the Climate Response to Anthropogenic Forcing. Climate 2020, 8, 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8030045
Pinault J-L. The Moist Adiabat, Key of the Climate Response to Anthropogenic Forcing. Climate. 2020; 8(3):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8030045Chicago/Turabian Style
Pinault, Jean-Louis. 2020. "The Moist Adiabat, Key of the Climate Response to Anthropogenic Forcing" Climate 8, no. 3: 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8030045