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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 6 articles

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Advances in Vehicular Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9040050 - 17 Oct 2020
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vehicular Networks)
Open AccessArticle
Novel Air Pollution Measurement System Based on Ethereum Blockchain
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9040049 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 641
Abstract
The need to protect sensitive data is growing, and environmental data are now considered sensitive. The application of last-generation procedures such as blockchains coupled with the implementation of new air quality monitoring technology allows the data protection and validation. In this work, the [...] Read more.
The need to protect sensitive data is growing, and environmental data are now considered sensitive. The application of last-generation procedures such as blockchains coupled with the implementation of new air quality monitoring technology allows the data protection and validation. In this work, the use of a blockchain applied to air pollution data is proposed. A blockchain procedure has been designed and tested. An Internet of Things (IoT)-based sensor network provides air quality data in terms of particulate matter of two different diameters, particulate matter (PM)10 and PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The dataset also includes meteorological parameters and vehicular traffic information. This work foresees that the data, recovered from traditional Not Structured Query Language (NoSQL) database, and organized according to some specifications, are sent to the Ethereum blockchain daily automatically and with the possibility to choose the period of interest manually. There was also the development of a transaction management and recovery system aimed at retrieving data, formatting it according to the specifications and organizing it into files of various formats. The blockchain procedure has therefore been used to track data provided by air quality monitoring networks unequivocally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Personal Picocell Scheme Using Adaptive Control CRE in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9040048 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Heterogeneous networks (HetNets), which are combined with a macrocell and picocell in the same coverage, are expected to further increase the system capacity in fifth-generation mobile systems and beyond. In HetNets, the cell range expansion (CRE) technique plays an important role and can [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous networks (HetNets), which are combined with a macrocell and picocell in the same coverage, are expected to further increase the system capacity in fifth-generation mobile systems and beyond. In HetNets, the cell range expansion (CRE) technique plays an important role and can allow more user equipment (UE) to access the picocell, i.e., virtually expand the picocell coverage. However, conventional CRE techniques that provide a fixed cell selection offset (CSO) for all UE may worsen user throughput if UE is forced to connect to the picocell because the received signal-to-interference plus noise ratio of the UE becomes lower. Therefore, we propose a personal picocell scheme using an adaptive control CRE technique to improve user throughput in which different CSOs are assigned to UE to form each optimal picocell for each UE. In this paper, we first describe the aspects and algorithm of the proposed scheme. Then, we show the user throughput for adaptive control CRE in comparison with conventional CRE by using system-level computer simulations for the two types of HetNets, i.e., single-band and multi-band HetNets. In the simulations, we first clarify the optimal parameters of the adaptive control CRE. We then show the average and 5-percentile user throughput of the optimized adaptive control CRE in comparison with that of conventional CRE. From these results, we confirmed that the personal picocell scheme using the adaptive control CRE can improve the 5-percentile user throughput while maintaining the average user throughput compared with that of conventional CRE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G and Beyond towards Enhancing Our Future)
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Open AccessEditorial
Sensor Networks in Structural Health Monitoring: From Theory to Practice
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9040047 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 210
Abstract
The growing attention that structural health monitoring (SHM) has enjoyed in recent years can be attributed, amongst other factors, to the advent of low-cost and easily deployable sensors [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
On the Use of Cameras for the Detection of Critical Events in Sensors-Based Emergency Alerting Systems
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9040046 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The adoption of emergency alerting systems can bring countless benefits when managing urban areas, industrial plants, farms, roads and virtually any area that is subject to the occurrence of critical events, supporting in rescue operations and reducing their negative impacts. For such systems, [...] Read more.
The adoption of emergency alerting systems can bring countless benefits when managing urban areas, industrial plants, farms, roads and virtually any area that is subject to the occurrence of critical events, supporting in rescue operations and reducing their negative impacts. For such systems, a promising approach is to exploit scalar sensors to detect events of interest, allowing for the distributed monitoring of different variables. However, the use of cameras as visual sensors can enhance the detection of critical events, which can be employed along with scalar sensors for a more comprehensive perception of the environment. Although the particularities of visual sensing may be challenging in some scenarios, the combination of scalar and visual sensors for the early detection of emergency situations can be valuable for many scenarios, such as smart cities and industry 4.0, bringing promising results. Therefore, in this article, we extend a sensors-based emergency detection and alerting system to also exploit visual monitoring when identifying critical events. Implementation and experimental details are provided to reinforce the use of cameras as a relevant sensor unit, bringing promising results for emergencies management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Statecharts-Based Approach for WSN Application Development
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9040045 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software development challenges developers in two main ways: through system programming, which requires expertise in hardware and network management; and application programming, which requires domain-specific knowledge. However, domain programmers often lack WSN programming expertise. Likewise, system-specific programmers may find [...] Read more.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software development challenges developers in two main ways: through system programming, which requires expertise in hardware and network management; and application programming, which requires domain-specific knowledge. However, domain programmers often lack WSN programming expertise. Likewise, system-specific programmers may find it difficult to understand domain-specific requirements. As a result, domain programmers often refrain from using WSN technology in domain-specific applications. Therefore, we propose a Finite State Machine (FSM)-based approach with an affiliated framework to decouple application functionality from WSN details. Instead of the traditional flat FSM, we use statecharts formalism because of its relaxed definition of system states. In this paper, we compare the statecharts paradigm against two basic WSN sensor node programming frameworks. The result exhibits that statecharts are an advanced paradigm in WSN application development. It motivated us to develop a statecharts framework. In our framework, we choose not to use the typical solution which converts statecharts to programming code. Instead of that, we implement a statecharts middleware associated with action libraries to interpret and actuate raw statecharts on an operating system. This approach allows domain programmers to concentrate on WSN application behavior, and system-specific programmers to focus on developing WSN services. We also introduce our statecharts middleware and present a living example with performance evaluation. Full article
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