Availability of Services in Wireless Sensor Network with Aerial Base Station Placement
- Agriculture. In precision agriculture, the ABSP architecture can be utilized for monitoring soil conditions, crop health, and growth. The ground sensors can collect data on soil moisture, temperature, and nutrient levels, and the UAVs can gather information on plant health through aerial imagery. The UAVs can then transmit this data to the base station and cloud processing center for further analysis, allowing farmers to optimize irrigation, fertilization, and pest control strategies.
- Environmental monitoring. The ABSP architecture can be used to monitor air quality, water pollution, and wildlife habitats. Ground sensors can collect data on air pollutants, water quality indicators, and wildlife movement patterns, and UAVs can provide aerial imagery and additional environmental data. By transmitting this information to the base station and cloud processing center, authorities and researchers can analyze the data and develop strategies for environmental conservation and pollution control.
- Disaster management. In the event of natural disasters such as floods, wildfires, or earthquakes, the ABSP architecture can help in rapid response and damage assessment. Ground sensors can collect data on the affected areas, and UAVs can provide real-time aerial imagery and assess the extent of the damage. This information can be sent to the base station and cloud processing center for processing, enabling authorities to make informed decisions about rescue and relief operations.
- Infrastructure monitoring. The proposed architecture can be employed to monitor the structural health of bridges, roads, railways, and other critical infrastructure. Ground sensors can measure vibrations, strain, and temperature, and UAVs can inspect these structures visually and through various imaging techniques. The gathered data can be transmitted to the base station and cloud processing center for analysis, allowing maintenance teams to detect and address potential issues before they become critical.
- Border security and surveillance. In border security applications, the ABSP architecture can help monitor and detect unauthorized activity along borders. Ground sensors can detect motion, sound, and other indicators of human presence, and UAVs can provide aerial surveillance and tracking. The data collected by the sensors and UAVs can be transmitted to the base station and cloud processing center for real-time analysis, enabling security forces to respond quickly to potential threats.
2. Related Works
3. Materials and Methods
- Develop a multi-tier WSN architecture incorporating UAVs for data collection, transmission, and processing, considering the real-world constraints of UAV operation.
- Analyze the availability of sensor services in different ABSP system configurations, considering ground sensors, UAVs, and ground base stations with cloud processing and analysis capabilities.
- Propose a model to calculate the availability of dedicated sensor services provided by UAVs in the ABSP system based on Markov chain analysis.
- Disaster management: In the event of a natural disaster, such as an earthquake or hurricane, communication networks can be disrupted or destroyed. UAVs equipped with communication equipment can be deployed as aerial base stations to restore communication networks and provide first responders with crucial information.
- Precision agriculture: UAVs can be used to collect data on crop health, soil moisture, and other environmental factors. With the help of ABSP, the collected data can be transmitted to a central server, where it can be analyzed and used to make informed decisions regarding crop management.
- Surveillance and security: UAVs equipped with cameras and other sensors can be used for surveillance and security purposes, such as monitoring borders, critical infrastructure, and public events. ABSP can be used to provide a reliable and secure communication link between the UAVs and the ground station, enabling real-time video transmission and control of the UAVs.
- Search and rescue: UAVs equipped with thermal imaging cameras and other sensors can be used to search for missing persons in remote or dangerous locations. ABSP can be used to provide a communication link between the UAVs and the ground station, enabling real-time transmission of data and control of the UAVs.
- Environmental monitoring: UAVs can be used to collect data on air quality, water quality, and other environmental factors. ABSP can be used to provide a communication link between the UAVs and the ground station, enabling real-time transmission of data and control of the UAVs.
- Security. This article does not address the security challenges associated with the deployment of UAVs in wireless sensor networks. As these networks become more widespread, they may become more susceptible to cyberattacks or malicious interference. Ensuring the security and privacy of data transmitted between sensors, UAVs, and the cloud is crucial for the successful implementation of these models.
- Environmental factors. The impact of environmental factors, such as weather conditions, terrain, and signal interference, on the performance of UAVs and ground sensors is not considered in the models. These factors can significantly affect the efficiency, reliability, and availability of the wireless sensor network, and thus, they should be taken into account when implementing the proposed architectures.
- Energy management. Although the models consider the limited flight time of UAVs and propose a fleet of additional UAVs for maintaining the availability of communication channels, the overall energy efficiency of the system is not thoroughly addressed. Further research is needed to optimize the energy consumption of UAVs and ground sensors as well as to develop more energy-efficient communication protocols for the proposed architectures.
- Cost-effectiveness. The deployment of multiple UAVs and ground recovery points can be expensive, especially for large-scale wireless sensor networks. A more in-depth cost–benefit analysis is necessary to determine the practicality and cost-effectiveness of implementing the proposed models in real-world applications.
- Regulatory and legal concerns. The operation of UAVs is subject to various regulations and legal restrictions, which can vary depending on the country or region. These limitations can impact the feasibility of the proposed architectures and should be considered during the design and implementation stages.
- Create realistic UAV models that account for factors such as battery life, flight dynamics, and communication constraints.
- Investigate security aspects of the proposed architecture, including data encryption, authentication, and intrusion detection mechanisms.
- Evaluate the scalability of the proposed architecture for large-scale networks and its performance under high node density conditions.
- Explore adaptive clustering algorithms that can dynamically adjust cluster size and structure based on network conditions and requirements.
- Investigate the integration of advanced communication technologies, such as 5G and 6G, to further enhance the performance of WSNs.
- The availability model of multi-tier WSN architecture is proposed, which integrates ground sensors, UAVs, and a ground base station with cloud processing and analysis. This architecture is particularly suited for applications in cyber-physical systems (CPS) and the Internet of Things (IoT).
- The comprehensive model for analyzing the availability of sensor services in this ABSP architecture is presented. The model takes into account various factors, such as the availability of end-to-end information channels, the dependability of equipment, and the reliability of cloud services.
- Two different configurations of ABSP systems were examined, one with a limited number of ground recovery points and another with a larger number of ground recovery points. The availability of the DSS in each configuration was assessed using Markov chain models.
- The effect of the number of UAVs, their reliability parameters, and the number of UAV levels on the availability of the DSS in the ABSP system were analyzed. This analysis provides valuable insights for designing more efficient WSNs with UAV support.
- The hierarchical ABSP architecture for fog computing has been proposed, which consists of multiple levels of UAV swarms. This architecture has the potential to enhance the performance and intelligence of the entire system by filtering and extracting valuable data at each UAV tier.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Stationary probability of the state Hi|
|Availability of end-to-end information channel from sensor to cloud processing|
|Unavailability of end-to-end information channel from sensor to cloud processing|
|Availability of service provided by the base station and cloud|
|Availability of WSN information service at ABSP level|
|Availability of information services provided by cluster sensor|
|Availability of information services provided by sensor|
|Availability of data services provided by cluster head|
|Failure rate of UAV service|
|Repair rate of UAV service|
|UAV reliability parameter 1|
|UAV reliability parameter 2|
|MTBF||Mean Time Between Failures|
|MTTR||Mean Time to Repair|
|Number of UAVs in ABSP system|
|Number of additional UAVs in backup fleet|
|Number of UAVs in ABSP system|
|Number of repair places in ground recovery center|
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Kabashkin, I. Availability of Services in Wireless Sensor Network with Aerial Base Station Placement. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2023, 12, 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan12030039
Kabashkin I. Availability of Services in Wireless Sensor Network with Aerial Base Station Placement. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. 2023; 12(3):39. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan12030039Chicago/Turabian Style
Kabashkin, Igor. 2023. "Availability of Services in Wireless Sensor Network with Aerial Base Station Placement" Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks 12, no. 3: 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan12030039