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Open AccessArticle

Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Investigation of Nepeta juncea Benth. Different Extracts

1
Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Water and Soil, University of Zabol, Zabol 98613-35856, Iran
2
Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università “Gabriele d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti Scalo (CH), Italy
3
King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
4
Grupo de Investigación en Biotecnología Aplicada a Biomedicina (BIOMED). Universidad de Las Américas, Quito 170125, Ecuador
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(5), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050646
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 10 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants)
This study was carried out to screen the amount and the classes of secondary metabolites and to evaluate the antioxidant, cytotoxic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of the methanolic, ethanolic, and water extracts of the roots, leaves, and flowers of Nepeta juncea Benth. The results show that the highest total phenol (69.54 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight), total flavonoid (41.37 ± 0.17 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry weight), anthocyanin (6.52 ± 0.21 mg cyanidin/100 g dry weight), and tannin (47.36 ± 0.33 mg catechin/g dry weight) concentrations were recorded in the methanolic extract of the leaves of N. juncea. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of the extracts showed that 1,8-cineole, 4aα-7α-7aα-nepetalactone, β-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol were the major compounds, respectively. The best 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant, cytotoxic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities were observed for the methanolic extract of the leaves. For the two latter activities, the best activity was revealed on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the antimicrobial of the methanolic extract from the leaves were in the range of 25–100 µg/mL, whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were in the range of 50–200 µg/mL. The results reported herein show that, for the first time in the literature, N. juncea is a remarkable source of antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological activities; bioactive compounds; human cancer cells; Nepeta juncea Benth biological activities; bioactive compounds; human cancer cells; Nepeta juncea Benth
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Sharifi-Rad, M.; Epifano, F.; Fiorito, S.; Álvarez-Suarez, J.M. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Investigation of Nepeta juncea Benth. Different Extracts. Plants 2020, 9, 646.

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