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Open AccessArticle

Physiological and Anatomical Mechanisms in Wheat to Cope with Salt Stress Induced by Seawater

1
Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
2
Radioisotopes Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki, Giza 12311, Egypt
3
Irrigation Department, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
4
Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 31-425 Krakow, Poland
5
Division Urban Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Lentzeallee, 14195 Berlin, Germany
6
Botany Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Behouth Steet, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020237 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 December 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 8 February 2020 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Salinity Tolerance in Plants)
Two pot experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to examine 14C fixation and its distribution in biochemical leaf components, as well as the physiological and anatomical adaptability responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown with seawater diluted to 0.2, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 dS m1. The results showed significant reductions in chlorophyll content, 14C fixation (photosynthesis), plant height, main stem diameter, total leaf area per plant, and total dry weight at 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 dS m1 seawater salt stress. The 14C loss was very high at 12.0 ds m−1 after 120 h. 14C in lipids (ether extract) showed significant changes at 12.0 dS m1 at 96 and 120 h. The findings indicated the leaf and stem anatomical feature change of wheat plants resulting from adaptation to salinity stress. A reduction in the anatomical traits of stem and leaf diameter, wall thickness, diameter of the hollow pith cavity, total number of vascular bundles, number of large and small vascular bundles, bundle length and width, thickness of phloem tissue, and diameter of the metaxylem vessel of wheat plants was found. In conclusion, salt stress induces both anatomical and physiological changes in the stem and leaf cells of wheat, as well as the tissues and organs, and these changes in turn make it possible for the plants to adapt successfully to a saline environment.
Keywords: 14C photoassimilation; anatomical traits; growth; seawater salt stress; Triticum aestivum 14C photoassimilation; anatomical traits; growth; seawater salt stress; Triticum aestivum
MDPI and ACS Style

Nassar, R.M.; Kamel, H.A.; Ghoniem, A.E.; Alarcón, J.J.; Sekara, A.; Ulrichs, C.; Abdelhamid, M.T. Physiological and Anatomical Mechanisms in Wheat to Cope with Salt Stress Induced by Seawater. Plants 2020, 9, 237.

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