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Article

Plant Roots Release Small Extracellular Vesicles with Antifungal Activity

1
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Research Division Portici, National Research Council, 80055 Portici, Italy
2
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
3
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council, 80055 Portici, Italy
4
MS Proteomics Research Group, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
5
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Research Division Naples, National Research Council, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121777
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Microbe Interactions)
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) play pivotal roles in cell-to-cell and inter-kingdom communication. Despite their relevant biological implications, the existence and role of plant EVs released into the environment has been unexplored. Herein, we purified round-shaped small vesicles (EVs) by differential ultracentrifugation of a sampling solution containing root exudates of hydroponically grown tomato plants. Biophysical analyses, by means of dynamic light scattering, microfluidic resistive pulse sensing and scanning electron microscopy, showed that the size of root-released EVs range in the nanometric scale (50–100 nm). Shot-gun proteomics of tomato EVs identified 179 unique proteins, several of which are known to be involved in plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the application of root-released EVs induced a significant inhibition of spore germination and of germination tube development of the plant pathogens Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Interestingly, these EVs contain several proteins involved in plant defense, suggesting that they could be new components of the plant innate immune system. View Full-Text
Keywords: root exudate; tomato; extracellular vesicles; plant-pathogen interactions; proteomics; fungal pathogens; biocargo; Fusarium; Botrytis; Alternaria root exudate; tomato; extracellular vesicles; plant-pathogen interactions; proteomics; fungal pathogens; biocargo; Fusarium; Botrytis; Alternaria
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Palma, M.; Ambrosone, A.; Leone, A.; Del Gaudio, P.; Ruocco, M.; Turiák, L.; Bokka, R.; Fiume, I.; Tucci, M.; Pocsfalvi, G. Plant Roots Release Small Extracellular Vesicles with Antifungal Activity. Plants 2020, 9, 1777. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121777

AMA Style

De Palma M, Ambrosone A, Leone A, Del Gaudio P, Ruocco M, Turiák L, Bokka R, Fiume I, Tucci M, Pocsfalvi G. Plant Roots Release Small Extracellular Vesicles with Antifungal Activity. Plants. 2020; 9(12):1777. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121777

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Palma, Monica, Alfredo Ambrosone, Antonietta Leone, Pasquale Del Gaudio, Michelina Ruocco, Lilla Turiák, Ramesh Bokka, Immacolata Fiume, Marina Tucci, and Gabriella Pocsfalvi. 2020. "Plant Roots Release Small Extracellular Vesicles with Antifungal Activity" Plants 9, no. 12: 1777. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121777

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