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Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accumulates Most S-Methylcysteine as Its γ-Glutamyl Dipeptide

1
Genomics and Biotechnology, London Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3, Canada
2
Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol 538-98615, Iran
3
Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
4
Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
5
Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj 31585-845, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8050126
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Sulfur Research)
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Abstract

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) constitutes an excellent source of vegetable dietary protein. However, there are sub-optimal levels of the essential amino acids, methionine and cysteine. On the other hand, P. vulgaris accumulates large amounts of the γ-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methylcysteine, and lower levels of free S-methylcysteine and S-methylhomoglutathione. Past results suggest two distinct metabolite pools. Free S-methylcysteine levels are high at the beginning of seed development and decline at mid-maturation, while there is a biphasic accumulation of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine, at early cotyledon and maturation stages. A possible model involves the formation of S-methylcysteine by cysteine synthase from O-acetylserine and methanethiol, whereas the majority of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine may arise from S-methylhomoglutathione. Metabolite profiling during development and in genotypes differing in total S-methylcysteine accumulation showed that γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine accounts for most of the total S-methylcysteine in mature seed. Profiling of transcripts for candidate biosynthetic genes indicated that BSAS4;1 expression is correlated with both the developmental timing and levels of free S-methylcysteine accumulated, while homoglutathione synthetase (hGS) expression was correlated with the levels of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine. Analysis of S-methylated phytochelatins by liquid chromatography and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry revealed only small amounts of homophytochelatin-2 with a single S-methylcysteine. The mitochondrial localization of phytochelatin synthase 2—predominant in seed, determined by confocal microscopy of a fusion with the yellow fluorescent protein—and its spatial separation from S-methylhomoglutathione may explain the lack of significant accumulation of S-methylated phytochelatins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; common bean; S-methylcysteine; homoglutathione; phytochelatin synthase; cysteine; methionine Phaseolus vulgaris; common bean; S-methylcysteine; homoglutathione; phytochelatin synthase; cysteine; methionine
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Saboori-Robat, E.; Joshi, J.; Pajak, A.; Solouki, M.; Mohsenpour, M.; Renaud, J.; Marsolais, F. Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accumulates Most S-Methylcysteine as Its γ-Glutamyl Dipeptide. Plants 2019, 8, 126.

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