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Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accumulates Most S-Methylcysteine as Its γ-Glutamyl Dipeptide

Genomics and Biotechnology, London Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3, Canada
Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol 538-98615, Iran
Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj 31585-845, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(5), 126;
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Sulfur Research)
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The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) constitutes an excellent source of vegetable dietary protein. However, there are sub-optimal levels of the essential amino acids, methionine and cysteine. On the other hand, P. vulgaris accumulates large amounts of the γ-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methylcysteine, and lower levels of free S-methylcysteine and S-methylhomoglutathione. Past results suggest two distinct metabolite pools. Free S-methylcysteine levels are high at the beginning of seed development and decline at mid-maturation, while there is a biphasic accumulation of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine, at early cotyledon and maturation stages. A possible model involves the formation of S-methylcysteine by cysteine synthase from O-acetylserine and methanethiol, whereas the majority of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine may arise from S-methylhomoglutathione. Metabolite profiling during development and in genotypes differing in total S-methylcysteine accumulation showed that γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine accounts for most of the total S-methylcysteine in mature seed. Profiling of transcripts for candidate biosynthetic genes indicated that BSAS4;1 expression is correlated with both the developmental timing and levels of free S-methylcysteine accumulated, while homoglutathione synthetase (hGS) expression was correlated with the levels of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine. Analysis of S-methylated phytochelatins by liquid chromatography and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry revealed only small amounts of homophytochelatin-2 with a single S-methylcysteine. The mitochondrial localization of phytochelatin synthase 2—predominant in seed, determined by confocal microscopy of a fusion with the yellow fluorescent protein—and its spatial separation from S-methylhomoglutathione may explain the lack of significant accumulation of S-methylated phytochelatins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; common bean; S-methylcysteine; homoglutathione; phytochelatin synthase; cysteine; methionine Phaseolus vulgaris; common bean; S-methylcysteine; homoglutathione; phytochelatin synthase; cysteine; methionine

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Saboori-Robat, E.; Joshi, J.; Pajak, A.; Solouki, M.; Mohsenpour, M.; Renaud, J.; Marsolais, F. Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accumulates Most S-Methylcysteine as Its γ-Glutamyl Dipeptide. Plants 2019, 8, 126.

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