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Elevated Ozone Concentration Reduces Photosynthetic Carbon Gain but Does Not Alter Leaf Structural Traits, Nutrient Composition or Biomass in Switchgrass

1
DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Institute for Sustainability, Energy, and Environment, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
3
Normandie Université, UNICAEN, INRA, UMR 950 Ecophysiologie Végétale, Agronomie et nutritions N, C, S, Esplanade de la Paix, Université Caen Normandie, 14032 Caen Cedex 5, France
4
Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, USDA ARS, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040085
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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Abstract

Elevated tropospheric ozone concentration (O3) increases oxidative stress in vegetation and threatens the stability of crop production. Current O3 pollution in the United States is estimated to decrease the yields of maize (Zea mays) up to 10%, however, many bioenergy feedstocks including switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have not been studied for response to O3 stress. Using Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology, we investigated the impacts of elevated O3 (~100 nmol mol−1) on leaf photosynthetic traits and capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence, the Ball–Woodrow–Berry (BWB) relationship, respiration, leaf structure, biomass and nutrient composition of switchgrass. Elevated O3 concentration reduced net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and maximum CO2 saturated photosynthetic capacity (Vmax), but did not affect other functional and structural traits in switchgrass or the macro- (except potassium) and micronutrient content of leaves. These results suggest that switchgrass exhibits a greater O3 tolerance than maize, and provide important fundamental data for evaluating the yield stability of a bioenergy feedstock crop and for exploring O3 sensitivity among bioenergy feedstocks. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone; switchgrass; photosynthesis; stomatal conductance; chlorophyll fluorescence; leaf anatomy; biomass ozone; switchgrass; photosynthesis; stomatal conductance; chlorophyll fluorescence; leaf anatomy; biomass
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Li, S.; Courbet, G.; Ourry, A.; Ainsworth, E.A. Elevated Ozone Concentration Reduces Photosynthetic Carbon Gain but Does Not Alter Leaf Structural Traits, Nutrient Composition or Biomass in Switchgrass. Plants 2019, 8, 85.

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