The phosphorus (P) supply from soils is crucial to crop production. Given the complexity involved in P-cycling, a model that can simulate the major P-cycling processes and link with other nutrients and environmental factors, e.g., soil temperature and moisture, would be a useful tool. The aim of this study was to describe a process-based P module added to the SPACSYS (Soil Plant and Atmosphere Continuum System) model and to evaluate its predictive capability on the dynamics of P content in crops and the impact of soil P status on crop growth. A P-cycling module was developed and linked to other modules included in the SPACSYS model. We used a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv
Xi-19) field experiment at Rothamsted Research in Harpenden to calibrate and validate the model. Model performance statistics show that the model simulated aboveground dry matter, P accumulation and soil moisture dynamics reasonably well. Simulated dynamics of soil nitrate and ammonium were close to the observed data when P fertiliser was applied. However, there are large discrepancies in fields without P fertiliser. This study demonstrated that the SPACSYS model was able to investigate the interactions between carbon, nitrogen, P and water in a single process-based model after the tested P module was implemented.
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