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Nitric Oxide Enhances Cytotoxicity of Lead by Modulating the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Is Involved in the Regulation of Pb2+ and Ca2+ Fluxes in Tobacco BY-2 Cells

1
College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100403
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
Lead is a heavy metal known to be toxic to both animals and plants. Nitric oxide (NO) was reported to participate in plant responses to different heavy metal stresses. In this study, we analyzed the function of exogenous and endogenous NO in Pb-induced toxicity in tobacco BY-2 cells, focusing on the role of NO in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as Pb2+ and Ca2+ fluxes using non-invasive micro-test technology (NMT). Pb treatment induced BY-2 cell death and rapid NO and ROS generation, while NO burst occurred earlier than ROS accumulation. The elimination of NO by 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) resulted in a decrease of ROS, and the supplementation of NO by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) caused an increased accumulation of ROS. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous NO stimulated Pb2+ influx, thus promoting Pb uptake in cells and aggravating Pb-induced toxicity in cells, whereas the removal of endogenous NO produced the opposite effect. Moreover, we also found that both exogenous and endogenous NO enhanced Pb-induced Ca2+ effluxes and calcium homeostasis disorder. These results suggest that exogenous and endogenous NO played a critical regulatory role in BY-2 cell death induced by Pb stress by promoting Pb2+ influx and accumulation and disturbing calcium homeostasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: NO; Pb2+; ROS; flux; Ca2+; homeostasis; tobacco BY-2 cell NO; Pb2+; ROS; flux; Ca2+; homeostasis; tobacco BY-2 cell
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Wu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Hao, R.; Cao, Y.; Shan, X.; Jing, Y. Nitric Oxide Enhances Cytotoxicity of Lead by Modulating the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Is Involved in the Regulation of Pb2+ and Ca2+ Fluxes in Tobacco BY-2 Cells. Plants 2019, 8, 403.

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