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Combined Boron Toxicity and Salinity Stress—An Insight into Its Interaction in Plants

Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, Konya 42079, Turkey
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100364
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
The continuously changing environment has intensified the occurrence of abiotic stress conditions. Individually, boron (B) toxicity and salinity stress are well recognized as severe stress conditions for plants. However, their coexistence in arid and semi-arid agricultural regions has shown ambiguous effects on plant growth and development. Few studies have reported that combined boron toxicity and high salinity stress have more damaging effects on plant growth than individual B and salt stress, while other studies have highlighted less damaging effects of the combined stress. Hence, it is interesting to understand the positive interaction of this combined stress so that it can be effectively employed for the improvement of crops that generally show the negative effects of this combined stress. In this review, we discussed the possible processes that occur in plants in response to this combined stress condition. We highly suggest that the combined B and salinity stress condition should be considered as a novel stress condition by researchers; hence, we recommend the name “BorSal” for this combined boron toxicity and high salinity state in the soil. Membrane-bound activities, mobility of ions, water transport, pH changes, transpiration, photosynthesis, antioxidant activities, and different molecular transporters are involved in the effects of BorSal interaction in plants. The discussed mechanisms indicate that the BorSal stress state should be studied in light of the involved physiological and molecular processes that occur after B and salt interaction in plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: combined stress; boron; novel stress; salinity; shared response combined stress; boron; novel stress; salinity; shared response
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Pandey, A.; Khan, M.K.; Hakki, E.E.; Gezgin, S.; Hamurcu, M. Combined Boron Toxicity and Salinity Stress—An Insight into Its Interaction in Plants. Plants 2019, 8, 364.

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