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Article

Comparative Study on the Phenolic Fingerprint and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Leaves and Fruits

1
Analytical Toxicology and Mineral Metabolism Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska Cesta 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Faculty of Health Studies, University of Rijeka, Viktora Cara Emina 5, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
3
Special Security Operations Directorate, Ministry of the Interior, Ulica grada Vukovara 33, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”—National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
5
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Simon Vlad Luca, Adriana Trifan and Gokhan Zengin
Plants 2022, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010025
Received: 30 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 18 December 2021 / Published: 22 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Plants)
The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae family) is an evergreen Mediterranean shrub whose leaves and fruits are used in traditional medicine due to their antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, diuretic, and antiproliferative properties. The health benefits are mainly attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the phenolic profiles, total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of A. unedo leaves and fruits collected at two locations in Croatia. Phenolic profiles were identified using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph (UHPLC) coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap MS). TPC was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu’s assay, while RSA was investigated using DPPH reagent. A total of 64 phenolics (60 and 42 compounds in leaves and fruits, respectively) were identified. Hyperoside and flavan-3-ols were predominant compounds in leaves, while gallocatechin and catechin were the major compounds found in fruits. To the authors’ knowledge, 16 and 5 phenolics in leaves and fruits, respectively, were reported for the first time. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that UHPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS could be used to identify which phenolics were able to discriminate samples regarding plant tissue and geographical origin. TPC in leaves and fruits were in the ranges of 67.07–104.74 and 16.78–25.86 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dried weight (dw), respectively. RSA for leaves and fruits were in the ranges of 408.92–430.98 and 74.30–104.04 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g dw, respectively. The number of identified phenolics was lower in fruits compared to leaves. Such a large number of bioactive phenolics identified and the strong antioxidant activity pointed to A. unedo as a promising health-promoting plant and natural food preservative. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arbutus unedo; Ericaceae; fruit; leaf; phenolic profile; antioxidant; UHPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS Arbutus unedo; Ericaceae; fruit; leaf; phenolic profile; antioxidant; UHPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brčić Karačonji, I.; Jurica, K.; Gašić, U.; Dramićanin, A.; Tešić, Ž.; Milojković Opsenica, D. Comparative Study on the Phenolic Fingerprint and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Leaves and Fruits. Plants 2022, 11, 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010025

AMA Style

Brčić Karačonji I, Jurica K, Gašić U, Dramićanin A, Tešić Ž, Milojković Opsenica D. Comparative Study on the Phenolic Fingerprint and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Leaves and Fruits. Plants. 2022; 11(1):25. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brčić Karačonji, Irena, Karlo Jurica, Uroš Gašić, Aleksandra Dramićanin, Živoslav Tešić, and Dušanka Milojković Opsenica. 2022. "Comparative Study on the Phenolic Fingerprint and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Leaves and Fruits" Plants 11, no. 1: 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010025

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