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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(1), 11;

Gender and Age Differences in Using Indoor Maps for Wayfinding in Real Environments

Zhengzhou Institute of Surveying and Mapping, Zhengzhou 450052, China
Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for GIS)
PDF [6735 KB, uploaded 3 January 2019]


Users more easily become lost in complex indoor environments than in outdoor environments. Users with diverse backgrounds encounter different self-location, route memorization, and route following problems during wayfinding. This study intends to explore gender and age effects on the use of indoor maps for wayfinding in real environments. We used eye-tracking and retrospective verbal protocol methods to conduct a wayfinding experiment in a newly opened building. Statistical data were collected and three findings were obtained. Finding 1: Males had no significant differences with females in indoor self-location, route reading, and route following. However, males paid less visual attention to the landmark and legend than females during route reading. Finding 2: Age-related differences were significant in indoor wayfinding. Younger adults generally outperformed elderly adults in wayfinding in real indoor environments. Finding 3: Gender and age interactive effects were significant in self-location and route memorization. The mean differences of visual attention on the self-location map reading and route memorization between males and females increased with age. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor wayfinding; eye-tracking; gender effects; age effects; retrospective verbal protocol indoor wayfinding; eye-tracking; gender effects; age effects; retrospective verbal protocol

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Wang, C.; Chen, Y.; Zheng, S.; Liao, H. Gender and Age Differences in Using Indoor Maps for Wayfinding in Real Environments. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 11.

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