- freely available
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(12), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi6120403
2. Related Work
3. Proposed Method
3.1. Road Skeleton Extraction
3.1.1. Simplification of Scattered Points
3.1.2. Road Skeleton Segmentation
3.2. Orientation-Based Extraction of Intersections
3.2.1. Identification of Collinear Segments
3.2.2. Detecting the Locations of Intersections
- In the first case, all the segments intersect at one point exactly, as illustrated in Figure 7a,c.
- In the second case, the segments intersect at multiple sub-intersections and the sub-intersections are all near the road intersection position, as illustrated in Figure 7b.
- In the third case, the segments intersect at multiple sub-intersections but some of the sub-intersections are not near the road intersection (i.e., outliers and noise), as illustrated in Figure 7d.
- For the first situation, which is illustrated in Figure 7a,c, the location of the road intersection is the intersection point of the road segments (i.e., the crossroad, T-intersection and turn).
- For the second situation, which is illustrated in Figure 7b, the location of the road intersection is the centroid of the multiple sub-intersections of all road segments.
- For the third situation, which is illustrated in Figure 7d, before merging the sub-intersections, outliers and noise must be removed (Section 3.1.2 states that a road segment cannot cross through the intersection area where feature points have a smaller linearity value; thus, the sub-intersection defined by the intersection of road segment and the dashed line in Figure 6d is discarded). Hierarchical clustering  is then performed to calculate the remaining intersections (sets of data are grouped by maximizing the similarity among similar clusters and minimizing the similarity between different clusters), and the centroids of the clusters are then used as the intersections. As illustrated in Figure 7d, the remaining two sub-intersections, and , are autonomous fragmented parts that preserve an irregular intersection because they are divided into two clusters.
4. Experiments and Discussion
4.2. Evaluation Method
4.3. Comparison and Discussion
4.3.1. Visual Inspection
4.3.2. Accuracy Results
Conflicts of Interest
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|Area||Method||Extracted/Truth 1||Number of Matched Intersections with the Threshold Distance (m)|
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