- freely available
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(4), 2004-2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4042004
2. Disaster Information Management Systems
2.1. Current Status of Disaster Information Management
2.2. Overview of the Proposed Zigbee Disaster Control System
2.2.1. ZigBee Network
|Communication distance||10–3000 m||100 m||10 m|
|Communication speed||250 kbps||11 Mbps||1 Mbps|
|Network capacity||65,536 nodes||32 nodes||7 nodes|
|Life-time on battery||several months||several hours||several days|
|Application||instrumentation control||wireless LAN||wireless accessories|
- Support of a large networkAs up to 65,635 terminals (“ZigBees”) can be configured to form one wireless network, and the configuration can happen independently of location and time.
- Ad hoc networkIt is easy to build an ad hoc network, and more stable communication can be realized by providing a higher density of terminals along the intended transfer paths.
- Low electric power consumptionMaintaining a long-term battery-powered network is possible.
- Low costThe costs of the ZigBee terminals are low, so it is possible to configure a wide area network by using a large number of them.
2.2.2. Optimized Arrangement Method and Radio Wave Propagation Analysis
3. Transmitting and Receiving Map-Data in Low-Speed Communication
3.1. Existing Image-Compression Methods
3.2. Proposed Image-Compression Method
3.3. Comparison of Image-Compression Methods
4. Evaluation Experiment for the Proposed System
4.1. Outline of the Evaluation Experiment
- Following the system flow, the time is measured for the calculation of the optimal locations of four ZigBee terminals.
- The experimenters transmit and receive disaster related information at 20 different spots. On each spot, the communication speed and the communication quality were measured.
- Then, the experimenters obtain new map information about their vicinity from a control center using GPS information and update it. After that, the new range of the radio communication is calculated and visualized.
4.2. Results of the Evaluation Experiment
4.2.1. Installation and Preparation Time
4.2.2. Communication Availability
4.2.3. Communication Speed
4.2.4. Sending and Receiving Geographical Data Updates
Conflicts of Interest
- Sugit, H.; Fukuta, T.; Tamura, T.; Yokoi, T.; Hara, T.; Kashima, T.; Azuhata, T.; Shibasaki, B.; Yagi, Y. IISEE-NET: Information network for earthquake disaster mitigation of developing countries. In Bulletin of the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering; Building Research Institute: Ibaraki, Japan, 2003; pp. 137–143. [Google Scholar]
- Kawamura, Y.; Dewan, A.; Veenendaal, B.; Shibuya, T.; Hayashi, M.; Kitahara, I.; Nobuhara, H.; Ishii, K. Using GIS to develop a mobile communications network for disaster-damaged areas. Int. J. Digit. Earth 2014, 7, 279–293. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kawamura, Y.; Ishii, K.; Jang, H.; Wagner, M.; Nobuhara, H.; Dewan, A.; Veenendaal, B.; Kitahara, I. Analysis of radio wave propagation in an urban environment and its application to initial disaster response support. J. Dis. Res. 2015, 10, 655–666. [Google Scholar]
- Nakahata, Y.; Kawamura, Y. Development of the landslide observation system using ZigBee. In Proceedings of the 2010 Society of Instrument and Control Engineers Annual Conference (SICE), Taipei, Taiwan, 18–21 August 2010; pp. 1191–1194.
- Ishii, K.; Kawamura, Y. Analysis of radio wave propagation in an urban environment and its application to initial disaster response support. In Proceedings of the 2010 Society of Instrument and Control Engineers Annual Conference (SICE), Taipei, Taiwan, 18–21 August 2010; pp. 1195–1198.
- Watanabe, N.; Uno, K. Utilization of sensor Web and spatial information platform as a supportive measure for field work monitoring. Rep. Inst. Sci. Tech. Res. 2011, 23, 62–66. [Google Scholar]
- Watanabe, K.; Ichikawa, T. A study of the information exchanging system for a person requiring care at the time of earthquake disaster. SIG Tech. Rep. 2006, 92, 25–29. [Google Scholar]
- Mohan, M.; George, N.; Davis, D. ZigBee technology for data communication—A comparative study with other wireless technologies. Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Sci. 2014, 5, 261–265. [Google Scholar]
- Baker, N. ZigBee and Bluetooth strengths and weaknesses for industrial applications. Comput. Contr. Engin. J. 2005, 16, 20–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moridi, M.A.; Kawamura, Y.; Sharifzadeh, M.; Chanda, E.K.; Wagner, M.; Jang, H.; Okawa, H. Development of underground mine monitoring and communication system integrated ZigBee and GIS. Int. J. Min. Sci. Technol. 2015, in press. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carlson, W.E. A Survey of Computer Graphics Image Encoding and Storage Formats. Comput. Graph. 1991, 25, 67–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).