Next Article in Journal
Conflation Optimized by Least Squares to Maintain Geographic Shapes
Next Article in Special Issue
HCTNav: A Path Planning Algorithm for Low-Cost Autonomous Robot Navigation in Indoor Environments
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Model Validation Techniques in Land Cover Dynamics
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration

Digital Media Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 2, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(3), 598-620;
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation)
PDF [943 KB, uploaded 27 June 2013]


Modern smartphones are a great platform for Location Based Services (LBS). While outdoor LBS for smartphones has proven to be very successful, indoor LBS for smartphones has not yet fully developed due to the lack of an accurate positioning technology. In this paper we present an accurate indoor positioning approach for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) smartphones that uses the innate ability of mobile phones to produce ultrasound, combined with Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) asynchronous trilateration. We evaluate our indoor positioning approach by describing its strengths and weaknesses, and determine its absolute accuracy. This is accomplished through a range of experiments that involve variables such as position of control point microphones, position of phone within the room, direction speaker is facing and presence of user in the signal path. Test results show that our Lok8 (locate) mobile positioning system can achieve accuracies better than 10 cm in a real-world environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile indoor positioning; ultrasound; LBS; least squares trilateration; TDOA mobile indoor positioning; ultrasound; LBS; least squares trilateration; TDOA

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Filonenko, V.; Cullen, C.; Carswell, J.D. Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2, 598-620.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top