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Article

Space—Time Surveillance of COVID-19 Seasonal Clusters: A Case of Sweden

1
Department of Physical geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden
2
Department of Geoinformatics, School of Built Environment, Kyambogo University, Kampala 256, Uganda
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Godwin Yeboah and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(5), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050307
Received: 25 March 2022 / Revised: 4 May 2022 / Accepted: 7 May 2022 / Published: 10 May 2022
While COVID-19 is a global pandemic, different countries have experienced different morbidity and mortality patterns. We employ retrospective and prospective space–time permutation analysis on COVID-19 positive records across different municipalities in Sweden from March 2020 to February 2021, using data provided by the Swedish Public Health Agency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing nationwide COVID-19 space–time clustering in Sweden, on a season-to-season basis. Our results show that different municipalities within Sweden experienced varying extents of season-dependent COVID-19 clustering in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. The reasons for the observed differences could be related to the differences in the earlier exposures to the virus, the strictness of the social restrictions, testing capabilities and preparedness. By profiling COVID-19 space–time clusters before the introduction of vaccines, this study contributes to public health efforts aimed at containing the virus by providing plausible evidence in evaluating which epidemiologic interventions in the different regions could have worked and what could have not worked. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; space–time clusters; retrospective; SaTScan; Sweden COVID-19; space–time clusters; retrospective; SaTScan; Sweden
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aturinde, A.; Mansourian, A. Space—Time Surveillance of COVID-19 Seasonal Clusters: A Case of Sweden. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11, 307. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050307

AMA Style

Aturinde A, Mansourian A. Space—Time Surveillance of COVID-19 Seasonal Clusters: A Case of Sweden. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2022; 11(5):307. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050307

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aturinde, Augustus, and Ali Mansourian. 2022. "Space—Time Surveillance of COVID-19 Seasonal Clusters: A Case of Sweden" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 11, no. 5: 307. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050307

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