The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays multiple regulatory roles in the tumorigenesis and development of cancer. TGF-β can inhibit the growth and proliferation of epithelial cells and induce apoptosis, thereby playing a role in inhibiting breast cancer. Therefore, the loss of response in epithelial cells that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation due to TGF-β is a landmark event in tumorigenesis. As tumors progress, TGF-β can promote tumor cell invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. At present, the above-mentioned role of TGF-β is related to the interaction of multiple signaling pathways in the cell, which can attenuate or abolish the inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis-promoting effects of TGF-β and enhance its promotion of tumor progression. This article focuses on the molecular mechanisms through which TGF-β interacts with multiple intracellular signaling pathways in tumor progression and the effects of these interactions on tumorigenesis.
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