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Endosymbiotic Evolution of Algae, Secondary Heterotrophy and Parasitism

1
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre CAS, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Biomolecules 2019, 9(7), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9070266
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary and Molecular Aspects of Plastid Endosymbioses)
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Abstract

Photosynthesis is a biochemical process essential for life, serving as the ultimate source of chemical energy for phototrophic and heterotrophic life forms. Since the machinery of the photosynthetic electron transport chain is quite complex and is unlikely to have evolved multiple independent times, it is believed that this machinery has been transferred to diverse eukaryotic organisms by endosymbiotic events involving a eukaryotic host and a phototrophic endosymbiont. Thus, photoautotrophy, as a benefit, is transmitted through the evolution of plastids. However, many eukaryotes became secondarily heterotrophic, reverting to hetero-osmotrophy, phagotrophy, or parasitism. Here, I briefly review the constructive evolution of plastid endosymbioses and the consequential switch to reductive evolution involving losses of photosynthesis and plastids and the evolution of parasitism from a photosynthetic ancestor. View Full-Text
Keywords: endosymbiosis; evolution; plastid; photosynthesis; secondary heterotrophy; phagotrophy; parasitism endosymbiosis; evolution; plastid; photosynthesis; secondary heterotrophy; phagotrophy; parasitism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Oborník, M. Endosymbiotic Evolution of Algae, Secondary Heterotrophy and Parasitism. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 266.

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