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Biomolecules 2019, 9(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9040142

Receptor Ligands as Helping Hands to L-DOPA in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Scuola di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti della Salute, Università di Camerino, Via S. Agostino 1, 62032 Camerino, Italy
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Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parkinson's Disease Drugs)
PDF [1137 KB, uploaded 9 April 2019]

Abstract

Levodopa (LD) is the most effective drug in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, although it represents the “gold standard” of PD therapy, LD can cause side effects, including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms as well as transient elevated liver enzyme levels. Moreover, LD therapy leads to LD-induced dyskinesia (LID), a disabling motor complication that represents a major challenge for the clinical neurologist. Due to the many limitations associated with LD therapeutic use, other dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic drugs are being developed to optimize the treatment response. This review focuses on recent investigations about non-dopaminergic central nervous system (CNS) receptor ligands that have been identified to have therapeutic potential for the treatment of motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. In a different way, such agents may contribute to extending LD response and/or ameliorate LD-induced side effects.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; levodopa therapy; levodopa-induced side effects; dopaminergic drugs; non-dopaminergic receptor ligands Parkinson’s disease; levodopa therapy; levodopa-induced side effects; dopaminergic drugs; non-dopaminergic receptor ligands
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Del Bello, F.; Giannella, M.; Giorgioni, G.; Piergentili, A.; Quaglia, W. Receptor Ligands as Helping Hands to L-DOPA in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 142.

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