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Biomolecules 2019, 9(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9040141

Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction as a Model to Investigate Fibrosis-Attenuating Treatments

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 04510, Mexico
2
Department of Nephrology and Laboratory of Renal Pathophysiology, National Institute of Cardiology “Ignacio Chávez”, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Kidney Injury and Repair)
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Abstract

Renal fibrosis is the common pathway for most forms of progressive renal disease. The Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO) model is used to cause renal fibrosis, where the primary feature of UUO is tubular injury as a result of obstructed urine flow. Furthermore, experimental UUO in rodents is believed to mimic human chronic obstructive nephropathy in an accelerated manner. Renal fibrosis is the common pathway for most forms of progressive renal disease. Removing the obstruction may not be sufficient to reverse fibrosis, so an accompanying treatment may be of benefit. In this review, we have done a revision on treatments shown to ameliorate fibrosis in the context of the UUO experimental model. The treatments inhibit the production of fibrotic and inflammatory proteins such as Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α), collagen and fibronectin, Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP47), suppress the proliferation of fibroblasts, prevent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, reduce oxidative stress, inhibit the action of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), reduce the phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) family members 2 and 3 (Smad2/3) or Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs), inhibit the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Summaries of the UUO experimental methods and alterations observed in the UUO experiments are included.
Keywords: unilateral ureteral obstruction; UUO; fibrosis; fibrosis-attenuating treatment unilateral ureteral obstruction; UUO; fibrosis; fibrosis-attenuating treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Martínez-Klimova, E.; Aparicio-Trejo, O.E.; Tapia, E.; Pedraza-Chaverri, J. Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction as a Model to Investigate Fibrosis-Attenuating Treatments. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 141.

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