The n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) families are essential for important physiological processes. Their major source are marine ecosystems. The fatty acids (FAs) from phytoplankton, which are the primary producer of organic matter and PUFAs, are transferred into consumers via food webs. Mollusk FAs have attracted the attention of researchers that has been driven by their critical roles in aquatic ecology and their importance as sources of essential PUFAs. The main objective of this review is to focus on the most important factors and causes determining the biodiversity of the mollusk FAs, with an emphasis on the key relationship of these FAs with the food spectrum and trophic preference. The marker FAs of trophic sources are also of particular interest. The discovery of new symbioses involving invertebrates and bacteria, which are responsible for nutrition of the host, deserves special attention. The present paper also highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine mollusks. The biosynthetic capacities of marine mollusks require a well-grounded evaluation.
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