Next Article in Journal
Combined Use of Deep Eutectic Solvents, Macroporous Resins, and Preparative Liquid Chromatography for the Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids and 20-Hydroxyecdysone from Chenopodium quinoa Willd
Next Article in Special Issue
New Insights into the Control of Cell Fate Choices and Differentiation by Retinoic Acid in Cranial, Axial and Caudal Structures
Previous Article in Journal
Wasabi Compound 6-(Methylsulfinyl) Hexyl Isothiocyanate Induces Cell Death with Coexisting Mitotic Arrest and Autophagy in Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia K562 Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Retinol Saturase Knock-Out Mice are Characterized by Impaired Clearance of Apoptotic Cells and Develop Mild Autoimmunity

Retinoic Acid and Germ Cell Development in the Ovary and Testis

Immunology Frontier Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Japan
Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Reproductive Biology Group, Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 775;
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 23 November 2019 / Published: 24 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Embryonic Development)
Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, is critical for the production of oocytes and sperm in mammals. These gametes derive from primordial germ cells, which colonize the nascent gonad, and later undertake sexual differentiation to produce oocytes or sperm. During fetal development, germ cells in the ovary initiate meiosis in response to RA, whereas those in the testis do not yet initiate meiosis, as they are insulated from RA, and undergo cell cycle arrest. After birth, male germ cells resume proliferation and undergo a transition to spermatogonia, which are destined to develop into haploid spermatozoa via spermatogenesis. Recent findings indicate that RA levels change periodically in adult testes to direct not only meiotic initiation, but also other key developmental transitions to ensure that spermatogenesis is precisely organized for the prodigious output of sperm. This review focuses on how female and male germ cells develop in the ovary and testis, respectively, and the role of RA in this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: germ cells; retinoic acid; meiosis; ovary; spermatogenesis; testis germ cells; retinoic acid; meiosis; ovary; spermatogenesis; testis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Endo, T.; Mikedis, M.M.; Nicholls, P.K.; Page, D.C.; de Rooij, D.G. Retinoic Acid and Germ Cell Development in the Ovary and Testis. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 775.

AMA Style

Endo T, Mikedis MM, Nicholls PK, Page DC, de Rooij DG. Retinoic Acid and Germ Cell Development in the Ovary and Testis. Biomolecules. 2019; 9(12):775.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Endo, Tsutomu, Maria M. Mikedis, Peter K. Nicholls, David C. Page, and Dirk G. de Rooij. 2019. "Retinoic Acid and Germ Cell Development in the Ovary and Testis" Biomolecules 9, no. 12: 775.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop