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Open AccessReview

On the Neuroprotective Effects of Naringenin: Pharmacological Targets, Signaling Pathways, Molecular Mechanisms, and Clinical Perspective

1
Student’s Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6714415153, Iran
2
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6734667149, Iran
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Biochemistry division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zabol, Zabol 7383198616, Iran
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Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto 14040-903, Brazil
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mansoura, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt
7
Department of Life Sciences, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110690
Received: 22 September 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Omics in Medicinal Plants)
As a group of progressive, chronic, and disabling disorders, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) affect millions of people worldwide, and are on the rise. NDs are known as the gradual loss of neurons; however, their pathophysiological mechanisms have not been precisely revealed. Due to the complex pathophysiological mechanisms behind the neurodegeneration, investigating effective and multi-target treatments has remained a clinical challenge. Besides, appropriate neuroprotective agents are still lacking, which raises the need for new therapeutic agents. In recent years, several reports have introduced naturally-derived compounds as promising alternative treatments for NDs. Among natural entities, flavonoids are multi-target alternatives affecting different pathogenesis mechanisms in neurodegeneration. Naringenin is a natural flavonoid possessing neuroprotective activities. Increasing evidence has attained special attention on the variety of therapeutic targets along with complex signaling pathways for naringenin, which suggest its possible therapeutic applications in several NDs. Here, in this review, the neuroprotective effects of naringenin, as well as its related pharmacological targets, signaling pathways, molecular mechanisms, and clinical perspective, are described. Moreover, the need to develop novel naringenin delivery systems is also discussed to solve its widespread pharmacokinetic limitation.
Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases; naringenin; pharmacological targets; signaling pathways; molecular mechanisms; drug delivery systems neurodegenerative diseases; naringenin; pharmacological targets; signaling pathways; molecular mechanisms; drug delivery systems
MDPI and ACS Style

Nouri, Z.; Fakhri, S.; El-Senduny, F.F.; Sanadgol, N.; Abd-ElGhani, G.E.; Farzaei, M.H.; Chen, J.-T. On the Neuroprotective Effects of Naringenin: Pharmacological Targets, Signaling Pathways, Molecular Mechanisms, and Clinical Perspective. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 690.

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