Next Article in Journal
Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs
Next Article in Special Issue
Chromatin Remodeling and Transcriptional Control in Innate Immunity: Emergence of Akirin2 as a Novel Player
Previous Article in Journal
Mammalian Cell Surface Display as a Novel Method for Developing Engineered Lectins with Novel Characteristics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Activation of Proinflammatory Responses in Cells of the Airway Mucosa by Particulate Matter: Oxidant- and Non-Oxidant-Mediated Triggering Mechanisms
Open AccessReview

Roles of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Department of Cell Metabolism and Nutrition, Brain/Liver Interface Medicine Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ivana Vancurova
Biomolecules 2015, 5(3), 1563-1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom5031563
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transcriptional Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Genes)
Abundant evidence has demonstrated that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation that triggers the release of lipids, aberrant adipokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and several chemokines from adipose tissue. This low-grade inflammation underlies the development of insulin resistance and associated metabolic comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). During this development, adipose tissue macrophages accumulate through chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 and the ligand for this receptor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is considered to be pivotal for the development of insulin resistance. To date, the chemokine system is known to be comprised of approximately 40 chemokines and 20 chemokine receptors that belong to the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family and, as a result, chemokines appear to exhibit a high degree of functional redundancy. Over the past two decades, the physiological and pathological properties of many of these chemokines and their receptors have been elucidated. The present review highlights chemokines and chemokine receptors as key contributing factors that link obesity to insulin resistance, T2DM, and NAFLD. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose tissue macrophage; chemokines; inflammation; obesity; insulin resistance; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; macrophage polarization; Kupffer cells adipose tissue macrophage; chemokines; inflammation; obesity; insulin resistance; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; macrophage polarization; Kupffer cells
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, L.; Kitade, H.; Ni, Y.; Ota, T. Roles of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 1563-1579.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop