Next Article in Journal
NF-kappaB Signaling in Chronic Inflammatory Airway Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Mechanisms of Transcription Initiation at gal Promoters and their Multi-Level Regulation by GalR, CRP and DNA Loop
Previous Article in Journal
Knockout of RNA Binding Protein MSI2 Impairs Follicle Development in the Mouse Ovary: Characterization of MSI1 and MSI2 during Folliculogenesis
Previous Article in Special Issue
New Insights into the Functions of Transcription Factors that Bind the RNA Polymerase Secondary Channel
Open AccessReview

Bacterial Sigma Factors and Anti-Sigma Factors: Structure, Function and Distribution

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
Academic Editors: Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj and Deborah M. Hinton
Biomolecules 2015, 5(3), 1245-1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom5031245
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial RNA Polymerase)
Sigma factors are multi-domain subunits of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) that play critical roles in transcription initiation, including the recognition and opening of promoters as well as the initial steps in RNA synthesis. This review focuses on the structure and function of the major sigma-70 class that includes the housekeeping sigma factor (Group 1) that directs the bulk of transcription during active growth, and structurally-related alternative sigma factors (Groups 2–4) that control a wide variety of adaptive responses such as morphological development and the management of stress. A recurring theme in sigma factor control is their sequestration by anti-sigma factors that occlude their RNAP-binding determinants. Sigma factors are then released through a wide variety of mechanisms, often involving branched signal transduction pathways that allow the integration of distinct signals. Three major strategies for sigma release are discussed: regulated proteolysis, partner-switching, and direct sensing by the anti-sigma factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA polymerase; transcription; anti-sigma; sigma; partner-switching; RIP; signal transduction; stress; extracytoplasmic RNA polymerase; transcription; anti-sigma; sigma; partner-switching; RIP; signal transduction; stress; extracytoplasmic
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Paget, M.S. Bacterial Sigma Factors and Anti-Sigma Factors: Structure, Function and Distribution. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 1245-1265.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop