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NF-kappaB Signaling in Chronic Inflammatory Airway Disease

Lung Health Research Centre (LHRC), Department Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Melbourne, Grattan St., Parkville 3010, Victoria, Australia
Academic Editor: Ivana Vancurova
Biomolecules 2015, 5(3), 1266-1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom5031266
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 31 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transcriptional Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Genes)
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are obstructive airway disorders which differ in their underlying causes and phenotypes but overlap in patterns of pharmacological treatments. In both asthma and COPD, oxidative stress contributes to airway inflammation by inducing inflammatory gene expression. The redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (NF-κB), is an important participant in a broad spectrum of inflammatory networks that regulate cytokine activity in airway pathology. The anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (GCs), a mainstay treatment for asthma, involve inhibition of NF-κB induced gene transcription. Ligand bound GC receptors (GRs) bind NF-κB to suppress the transcription of NF-κB responsive genes (i.e., transrepression). However, in severe asthma and COPD, the transrepression of NF-κB by GCs is negated as a consequence of post-translational changes to GR and histones involved in chromatin remodeling. Therapeutics which target NF-κB activation, including inhibitors of IκB kinases (IKKs) are potential treatments for asthma and COPD. Furthermore, reversing GR/histone acetylation shows promise as a strategy to treat steroid refractory airway disease by augmenting NF-κB transrepression. This review examines NF-κB signaling in airway inflammation and its potential as target for treatment of asthma and COPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: airway smooth muscle; allergic asthma; alveolar macrophages; cigarette smoke; eosinophils; epithelium; emphysema; histone deacetylase; phosphoinositide 3 kinase-delta (PI3K-δ); sirtuins airway smooth muscle; allergic asthma; alveolar macrophages; cigarette smoke; eosinophils; epithelium; emphysema; histone deacetylase; phosphoinositide 3 kinase-delta (PI3K-δ); sirtuins
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Schuliga, M. NF-kappaB Signaling in Chronic Inflammatory Airway Disease. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 1266-1283.

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