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Complement Components in the Diagnosis and Treatment after Kidney Transplantation—Is There a Missing Link?

1
St. Louis Regional Children’s Hospital, Medical Diagnostic Laboratory with a Bacteriology Laboratory, Strzelecka 2 St., 31-503 Kraków, Poland
2
Medical College of Rzeszów University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Kopisto 2A Avn., 35-310 Rzeszów, Poland
3
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medyczna 9 St., 30-688 Kraków, Poland
4
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Grzegórzecka 16 St., 31-531 Kraków, Poland
5
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Chair of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Diagnostics, Kopernika 15A St., 31-501 Kraków, Poland
6
Medical University of Białystok, Faculty of Medicine, 1st Department of Nephrology and Transplantation with Dialysis Unit, Żurawia 14 St., 15-540 Białystok, Poland
7
Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
8
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Chair and Department of Nephrology, Jakubowskiego 2 St., 30-688 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jean van den Elsen and Maisem Laabei
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060773
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complement System in Disease)
Currently, kidney transplantation is widely accepted as the renal replacement therapy allowing for the best quality of life and longest survival of patients developing end-stage renal disease. However, chronic transplant rejection, recurrence of previous kidney disease or newly acquired conditions, or immunosuppressive drug toxicity often lead to a deterioration of kidney allograft function over time. Complement components play an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney allograft impairment. Most studies on the role of complement in kidney graft function focus on humoral rejection; however, complement has also been associated with cell mediated rejection, post-transplant thrombotic microangiopathy, the recurrence of several glomerulopathies in the transplanted kidney, and transplant tolerance. Better understanding of the complement involvement in the transplanted kidney damage has led to the development of novel therapies that inhibit complement components and improve graft survival. The analysis of functional complotypes, based on the genotype of both graft recipient and donor, may become a valuable tool for assessing the risk of acute transplant rejection. The review summarizes current knowledge on the pathomechanisms of complement activation following kidney transplantation and the resulting diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: kidney transplantation; allograft function; complement; transplant rejection; complotypes kidney transplantation; allograft function; complement; transplant rejection; complotypes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kielar, M.; Gala-Błądzińska, A.; Dumnicka, P.; Ceranowicz, P.; Kapusta, M.; Naumnik, B.; Kubiak, G.; Kuźniewski, M.; Kuśnierz-Cabala, B. Complement Components in the Diagnosis and Treatment after Kidney Transplantation—Is There a Missing Link? Biomolecules 2021, 11, 773. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060773

AMA Style

Kielar M, Gala-Błądzińska A, Dumnicka P, Ceranowicz P, Kapusta M, Naumnik B, Kubiak G, Kuźniewski M, Kuśnierz-Cabala B. Complement Components in the Diagnosis and Treatment after Kidney Transplantation—Is There a Missing Link? Biomolecules. 2021; 11(6):773. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060773

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kielar, Małgorzata, Agnieszka Gala-Błądzińska, Paulina Dumnicka, Piotr Ceranowicz, Maria Kapusta, Beata Naumnik, Grzegorz Kubiak, Marek Kuźniewski, and Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala. 2021. "Complement Components in the Diagnosis and Treatment after Kidney Transplantation—Is There a Missing Link?" Biomolecules 11, no. 6: 773. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060773

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