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Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities

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Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR—Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019, India
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Division of Crop Physiology, Biochemistry and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla 171001, India
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ICAR—Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi 284003, India
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Division of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, ICAR—Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
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Agro Produce Processing Division, ICAR—Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal 462038, India
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Division of Biochemistry, ICAR—Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
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Department of Agriculture Energy and Power, ICAR—Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal 462038, India
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Dr. S.S. Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
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Division of Horticulture, RCSM College of Agriculture, Kolhapur 416004, India
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School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India
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Department of Food, Nutrition, & Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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Ginning Training Centre, ICAR—Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Nagpur 440023, India
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Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
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Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht’s University, 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joanna Kolniak-Ostek
Biomolecules 2021, 11(5), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050614
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 18 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
Annona squamosa L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. These compounds include phenol-based compounds, e.g., proanthocyanidins, comprising 18 different phenolic compounds, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Extracts from Annona squamosa leaves (ASLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotective functions. In the current article, we discussed the nutritional and phytochemical diversity of ASLs. Additionally, ASL extracts were discussed with respect to their biological activities, which were established by in vivo and in vitro experiments. A survey of the literature based on the phytochemical profile and health-promoting effects of ASLs showed that they can be used as potential ingredients for the development of pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. Although there are sufficient findings available from in vitro and in vivo investigations, clinical trials are still needed to determine the exact effects of ASL extracts on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: custard apple leaves; biological activities; phenolic bioactives; health promoting effects custard apple leaves; biological activities; phenolic bioactives; health promoting effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, M.; Changan, S.; Tomar, M.; Prajapati, U.; Saurabh, V.; Hasan, M.; Sasi, M.; Maheshwari, C.; Singh, S.; Dhumal, S.; Radha; Thakur, M.; Punia, S.; Satankar, V.; Amarowicz, R.; Mekhemar, M. Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 614. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050614

AMA Style

Kumar M, Changan S, Tomar M, Prajapati U, Saurabh V, Hasan M, Sasi M, Maheshwari C, Singh S, Dhumal S, Radha, Thakur M, Punia S, Satankar V, Amarowicz R, Mekhemar M. Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(5):614. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050614

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Manoj; Changan, Sushil; Tomar, Maharishi; Prajapati, Uma; Saurabh, Vivek; Hasan, Muzaffar; Sasi, Minnu; Maheshwari, Chirag; Singh, Surinder; Dhumal, Sangram; Radha; Thakur, Mamta; Punia, Sneh; Satankar, Varsha; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Mekhemar, Mohamed. 2021. "Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities" Biomolecules 11, no. 5: 614. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050614

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