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Eat, Train, Sleep—Retreat? Hormonal Interactions of Intermittent Fasting, Exercise and Circadian Rhythm

1
Division of Exercise Physiology and Metabolism, Department of Sport Science, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
2
Department of Social Work and Health, Coburg University of Applied Sciences, 96450 Coburg, Germany
3
Interdisciplinary Metabolic Medicine Research Group, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Randy J. Nelson
Biomolecules 2021, 11(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040516
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 27 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapies Strategies)
The circadian rhythmicity of endogenous metabolic and hormonal processes is controlled by a complex system of central and peripheral pacemakers, influenced by exogenous factors like light/dark-cycles, nutrition and exercise timing. There is evidence that alterations in this system may be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. It has been shown that disruptions to normal diurnal rhythms lead to drastic changes in circadian processes, as often seen in modern society due to excessive exposure to unnatural light sources. Out of that, research has focused on time-restricted feeding and exercise, as both seem to be able to reset disruptions in circadian pacemakers. Based on these results and personal physical goals, optimal time periods for food intake and exercise have been identified. This review shows that appropriate nutrition and exercise timing are powerful tools to support, rather than not disturb, the circadian rhythm and potentially contribute to the prevention of metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, both lifestyle interventions are unable to address the real issue: the misalignment of our biological with our social time. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermittent fasting; circadian rhythm; exercise; metabolism; stress hormones intermittent fasting; circadian rhythm; exercise; metabolism; stress hormones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haupt, S.; Eckstein, M.L.; Wolf, A.; Zimmer, R.T.; Wachsmuth, N.B.; Moser, O. Eat, Train, Sleep—Retreat? Hormonal Interactions of Intermittent Fasting, Exercise and Circadian Rhythm. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040516

AMA Style

Haupt S, Eckstein ML, Wolf A, Zimmer RT, Wachsmuth NB, Moser O. Eat, Train, Sleep—Retreat? Hormonal Interactions of Intermittent Fasting, Exercise and Circadian Rhythm. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(4):516. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040516

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haupt, Sandra, Max L. Eckstein, Alina Wolf, Rebecca T. Zimmer, Nadine B. Wachsmuth, and Othmar Moser. 2021. "Eat, Train, Sleep—Retreat? Hormonal Interactions of Intermittent Fasting, Exercise and Circadian Rhythm" Biomolecules 11, no. 4: 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040516

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