Osteoporosis, one of the leading causes of bone fractures, is characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, which are associated with a consequent increase in bone fragility and predisposition to fracture. Current screening tools are limited in estimating the proper assessment of fracture risk, highlighting the need to discover novel more suitable biomarkers. Genetic and environmental factors are both implicated in this disease. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetics and, in particular, miRNAs, may represent a link between these factors and an increase of fracture risk. miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. In the last decade, several miRNAs have been associated with the development of osteoporosis and bone fracture risk, opening up new possibilities in precision medicine. Recently, these molecules have been identified in several biological fluids, and the possible existence of a circulating miRNA (c-miRNA) signature years before the fracture occurrence is suggested. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the c-miRNAs suggested as promising biomarkers for osteoporosis up until now, which could be helpful for early diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response, as well as fracture risk assessment, in osteoporotic patients.
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